Globalization has produced winners and losers and the international institutions created to govern the process have and continue to further the interests of the winners. While actors who have been able to engage fully with the process have benefitted, others have not done so well and in most cases have been left worse off. This is as a result of the interplay of power in the global system which generates unequal social privileges for parties involved. The argument of this paper is that global governance is simply an enforcement of the powerful in the global arena which has led to the production of winners and losers in the globalization process.
Any discussion of global governance should start with an understanding of globalization which has lead to the changing nature of the fabric of the international society hence the need for global governance. While there are varying definitions of globalization in the available literature, there seem to a convergence on globalization as the widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness . Society has become interconnected in such a way that what happens in one society greatly influences what happens in the other. Current events in the Middle East give credence to this fact. The world has increasingly become interconnected especially in the economic, political, environmental and technological spheres. Economic integration has mostly intensified worldwide as a result of trade liberalization which has led to the reduction of trade barriers and the increased movement goods and people across borders. Technological advancements have also led to increased communication among people of various cultures and societies leading to a transnational spread of ideas. Additionally awareness has been drawn to environmental concerns such as the pollution and degradation of the global commons .
As this process has preceded so has the emergence of global or transnational problems which fall outside the scope and traditional authority of nation states. Problems such as transnational crime, climate change, financial crises etc are ones which individual states cannot tackle alone. The nature of these new problems therefore calls regulations or rulemaking on a global to effectively tackle them. It is against this backdrop that experts look at concepts like global governance for solutions to manage the global phenomenon. Global governance has been defined as “the sum of organizations, policy instruments, financing mechanisms, rules, procedures, and norms” or “the collective effort to identify, understand, and address worldwide problems that are beyond the capacity of individual states”.
Global governance however does not just happen and requires a concerted effort from all parties involved in the global process to enact global policies. Players in the global policy arena include states, international organizations, professional associations, advocacy groups etc. According to Avant et, al, these agents who...