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International Political Development During The 20th Century

1702 words - 7 pages

Modernisation Theory 1950s-1960s
Modernisation emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s; it was constructed from a newly profound position that was taken by America in terms of its international hegemony based on the concern to eradicate social problems faced by poor countries. However in the late 1960s there was an involvement of the US in Vietnam due to modernisation programs that failed. This led to the emergence of a Marxist dependency school that aimed to challenge modernisation school. The battle between dependency and modernisation theory emerged and it later became subside.
This left the development of the third world to be less emotional and ideological. However the main focus of modernisation is attributed from the desire to promote development specifically in the third world while using the model that is constructed in the first world as a measure for development in the third world. According to this theory third world countries are considered to operating in the wrong manner which often leads them to be economically backwards.
In recent historical experience constructed from the Western Europe after the occurrence of the Second World War came about a marshal plan that advocated the necessity to improve growth in economy using a form of import substitution along with industrialization. Due to the emergence of most third world countries, one important solution to address develop mental problems was through policy implication that resulted in a huge capital investment of foreign aid. agreements came forward concerning the success of this school pf thought due to the fact that is was believed that it failed to bring more hope for an increase in growth in terms of industrial sectors, the increase in income wages along with the efficient rural subsistence sectors. For instance it’s often believed that colonial powers were the ones that exploited the majority of resources in Africa.
Dependency theories late
The main concept of dependency theory was based on the notion of believing that capitalist penetration typically leads to and often creates a combined and development that is not equal based on its constitutive parts. The implication of the policy was done based on indigenous social and economic development that aimed to give directions in the third world. This meant that third world development must be done without the interference and the dominance of industrial capitalist penetration. However the dependency theory mission and aims are almost similar to those of modernisation theory but the dependency theory provides an external explanation instead of internal explanation like that of modernisation theory based on the third world. The criteria of the argument was that countries in the third word remained economically backward not because of traditional value and institutions that exist among them but due to the fact that they are continuously exploited by western countries. .
By the end of 1986s it was increasingly becoming clear...

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