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International Security: How Hiv And Aids Play An Effect On That

2919 words - 12 pages

In the reading The Contested Concept of Security, Steve Smith implies that security is based on human security, in that there’s more to security than brute force. Traditionally, from a realist perspective, security has been defined solely as military defense. From a liberal perspective, security is not just military, but also the establishment of Institutions. However, since the events of September 11, many people like Steve Smith have been given good reason to reassess the meaning of the whole concept of security. He suggests that security needs to be defined more broadly, and that the concept of security is essentially a derivative/contested term. One of the variables that can be found when broadening the definition of security is HIV/Aids, which can lead to a breach in human security, and in turn, national security. Consequently, their will be a state collapse, which will lead us to international security, all of which I will explain in more detail later on.
Traditionally, the military has been realisms approach to security. Realism is an international relations theory, which states that world politics is driven by competitive self-interest. Realists define security as military because according to Mearsheimer, the goal and objective of any great power is to achieve hegemony (A hegemon is a state that is so powerful that it dominates all other states in the system). Taking from the reading Anarchy and the Struggle for power, the reason great powers seek hegemony is because there are five realist assumptions about the international system. The first assumption is that “the international system is anarchic, which does not mean that it is chaotic or driven by disorder”. In other words, there is no one authority above all the individual powers. There is no government over governments. The second assumption is that “great powers inherently possess some offensive military capability, which gives them the wherewithal to hurt and possibly destroy each other”. Accordingly, states can be very dangerous to each other, and will do everything they can to have more military power. The third assumption is that “states can never be certain about other states’ intentions. Specifically, no state can be sure that another state will not use its military capability to attack the first state”. The fourth assumption is that “survival is the primary goal of great powers. Specifically, states seek to maintain their territorial integrity and the autonomy of their domestic political order”. Finally, The fifth assumption is that “great powers are rational actors. They are aware of their external environment and they think strategically about how to survive. In particular, they consider the preferences of other states and how their own behavior of those states is likely to affect their own strategy for survival”.
Each of these five assumptions on their own does not necessarily dictate that great powers will behave aggressively toward each other. However, as pointed out...

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