The challenges and overcoming them
There are a many challenges that an officer faces when it comes to interviews and interrogations. Some challenges include learning if someone is a possible suspect through the information received in an interview, preparation for the interrogation, issues with legality of the Miranda warnings, deception by the officer, emotional balance, and most importantly, preventing false confessions.
Information that is discovered by a suspect during an interview may make a Find the right attitude and structure of the questioning play a huge role in the success of the interview or interrogation. The structure of the interrogation will also determine the success.
When the Miranda Rights were established, police were having a more challenging time getting information from suspects. Suspects were more likely to obtain their right to counsel or answer question more vaguely, leading to longer and less effective interrogations. Officers looked for other ways to get confessions without violating the Miranda Rights. Many psychological techniques became more common, such as the “good cop bad cop” routine; one detective seems to grill the suspect while the other detective appears to be protecting the suspect, creating a trust between the “good cop” and the suspect. Officers also now inform the suspect of all the terrible things they may face if they’re convicted of the crime, and seem to help the suspect by promising a less severe punishment if the cooperate with the police. “For a while, police tried such things as polygraphs to determine if the suspect was being deceptive, but polygraphs and polygraph training are expensive, and the results are almost never admissible in court” (Layton, 2011). Through all of the psychological techniques, John Reid, a polygraph analyst noticed physical signs through suspects that helped some criminal cases; he developed the Reid’s “Nine Steps” of psychological manipulation, which is commonly used today.
Reid’s Nine Steps
John Reid formulated nine components of criminal investigation to obtain a confession legally. If the steps are conducted correctly, an in order, the confession of those who are guilty and the learning of those who are innocent will be discovered. Each step is legally and morally justifiable (Buckley et al., 2013, p. 187). The steps are: a direct, positive confrontation; a theme development; handling denials; overcoming objections; procurement and retention of a...