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The Growth And Production Of Cancer Cells

1667 words - 7 pages

Cancer cells exhibit the distinctive metabolisms contrary to the normal cells, not only energy production depending on aerobic glycolysis but the dysregulatedcell signaling and mechanism,the increasing of fatty acid synthesis and glutaminolysisare obviously observed.(Y Zhao et al. 2013)Simultaneously, intrinsic and extrinsic molecular mechanisms have been changed, in order to alter cellular metabolisms to meet the demand of nutrient in the rapid growth of cancer cells, commonly carbohydrate, protein, lipid and nucleic acid are the essential sources for which cancer cells need to support their growth and dividing. Previous studies have pointed out the cancer metabolic phenotypes that thewarberg effect seems to be a prominent feature. Cancer cells would switch the shunt of ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis even in anaerobic condition. This effect regulated by PI3K, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), p53 and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)-liver kinase B1 (LKB1) pathway. However, the adaptation to a new microenvironment as the process of cell remodeling intended to achieve the cancer cell needs both in macromolecular synthesis and maintaining redox balance. In the rapid proliferation stage, NADPH and high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)are the key molecules distinguishing between cancer and normal cells.Importantly, the genetic alterations affecting the metabolic change commonly found the oncogenes and tumor suppressor gene mutations that influence the intracellular signaling pathways. These changes can alter the metabolism and re-engineer the process facilitating the rapid growth and survival of cancer cells through the RAS and mTORC1 pathway. (Rob A. Cairns. et al. 2001 and Chi V Dang. 2012)
Lipid, protein and nucleic acid appear to be the most important to highly proliferative cells. To select a particular amino acid deprivation has been reported the good outcomes in various cancers since the cancer addicted to the nutrients. However, not all of the amino acid would reduce 50 % the tumor mass from some previous studies. Later on, a study of arginine deprivation showed an effective result against the several cancer types. Arginine is an amino acid which has the different level between patients and normal subjects. It is a semi-essential amino acid since sometimes the endogenous arginine is not sufficient. Cancer cells auxotroph to arginine because the key enzyme, ASS producingendogenous arginine is deficient.(Denys N Wheatly. 2006) Base on ASS deficiency and arginine auxotrophs, it is reasonable to prospect the cancer growth inhibition in different strategies with drugs or arginine degrading enzymes such as ADI and human arginase I.
Arginine plays important role in protein, nitric oxide, polyamines, nucleotides, proline and glutamate synthesis. (Morris SM JR. 2006) It is produced from citrulline through urea cycle including proximal renal tubule cells. In the rapid growth such the cancer cells, endogenous arginine is...

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