1. Managing Change and Innovation
Paton & McCalman (2008) define change management as a structured approach that enables organizations to transition individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. According to Robbins & Coulter (2005), organizational change refers to any alterations in the people, technology or structures within an organization.
Discussion of change management
There exist internal and external forces that bring about the need for organizations to change. Robbins & Coulter (2005) identify the following external forces to change; market-place conditions, technological advancements, economic conditions, and government laws and regulations. The internal forces for change include employee attitudes and behavior as well as compensation and benefit requirements, organizational strategy and new equipment.
Robbins & Coulter (2005) identify two viewpoints to the change process in organizations. These are; ‘the calm waters’ and ‘the white water rapids’ metaphors. The ‘white water’ metaphor works on the premise that the operating environments are characterized by uncertainties and dynamisms. The ‘calm waters’ metaphor on the other hand is premised on believe that the operating environment is stable and predictable and utilizes Lewin's three-step model of unfreezing the status quo, change to a new state and finally refreezing to the new state in order to manage the change process. According to Hiatt & Creasey (2003), people resist change because of a number of factors such as uncertainty, fear of personal loss of status, money, authority, friendships, and the belief that the change is not in the organization’s best interest. Changing people refers to changes in attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behavior of individuals or groups.
Paton & McCalman (2008) identify some benefits that accrue to organizational managers on successfully managing the change process. These include; improved organizational performance; enhanced employee satisfaction, morale, and engagement; and improvement in overall service quality to customers and other stakeholders.
Media Example of external forces behind the need for change in organizations
Serandos (2014) reports in BDLive that consolidation of South African telecom companies is what will provide them with a lifeline in the highly competitive telecoms sector that has been characterized by sustained price wars that have exerted undue pressure in the sector thereby compromising service quality. Cut-throat competition in the sector has resulted in continued drop in prices for services offered meaning that industry players have been forced to make lower margins for their services, which threatens to push them out of operations. In such conditions, innovation and change seem to be the only options for companies that want to survive. Serandos (2014) highlights those innovative products such as PBX (Private Box Exchange) as well as cloud-based...