Introduction To Longwall Mining And Subsidence

3261 words - 13 pages

Introduction to Longwall Mining and Subsidence
Prepared by
Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants
Level 1 / 228 Victoria Avenue - Chatswood - NSW 2067 PO Box 3047 - Willoughby North - NSW 2068
Tel. (02) 9413 3777 Fax. (02) 9413 3822 Email: enquiries@minesubsidence.com
www.minesubsidence.com
Revision A
August 2007

Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants August 2007 i
DOCUMENT REGISTER Revision Description Author Reviewed Date
A 2/8/07
.

Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants August 2007 ii
CONTENTS DOCUMENT REGISTER i CONTENTS ii LIST OF FIGURES ii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO LONGWALL MINING AND SUBSIDENCE 3 1.1. The Longwall Mining Process 3 1.2. The Development of Subsidence. 6
1.2.1. Subsidence Mechanisms 6 1.2.2. Subsidence Parameters 7 1.2.3. Subsidence Impacts at the Surface 9
CHAPTER 2. REFERENCES 11
LIST OF FIGURES Figures are prefaced by the letter of the Appendix in which they are presented.
Figure No. Description Fig. 1.1 Cutaway View of a Typical Longwall Mine ........................................................................... 3 Fig. 1.2 Cross Section of a Typical Longwall Face.............................................................................. 4 Fig. 1.3 Typical Longwall Face Equipment ......................................................................................... 4 Fig. 1.4 Typical Plan View of a Series of Longwall Panels ................................................................. 5 Fig. 1.5 Typical Subsidence Profile Drawn to a True Scale................................................................. 6 Fig. 1.6 Subsidence Parameter Profiles above a Single Longwall Panel.............................................. 8 Fig. 1.7 Development of a Subsidence Trough (to an exaggerated vertical scale)............................... 9

Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants August 2007 3
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO LONGWALL MINING AND SUBSIDENCE
1.1. The Longwall Mining Process Fig. 1.1, below, shows a cutaway diagram of a typical longwall mine. The main features of the mine are indicated in the key below the diagram. The longwall face is indicated by the number 8 in the diagram.
Fig. 1.1 Cutaway View of a Typical Longwall Mine
In longwall mining, a panel of coal, typically around 150 to 300 metres wide, 1000 to 3500 metres long and 2 to 5 metres thick, is totally removed by longwall shearing machinery, which travels back and forth across the coalface. A typical section through a coal face is shown in Fig. 1.2 and a photograph of typical longwall face equipment is shown in Fig. 1.3. The shearer cuts a slice of coal from the coalface on each pass and a face conveyor, running along the full length of the coalface, carries this away to discharge onto a belt conveyor, which carries the coal out of the mine.
KEY 1. Drift for men and materials access
2. Shaft winder house
3. Bathhouse and administration building
4. Workshops
5. Coal preparation plant
6. Coal storage bins
7. Gas drainage system
8. Longwall...

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