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Introduction To Political Science Essay

1930 words - 8 pages

What is scientific research methodology? Include hypothesis building (formulate your own hypothesis), operationalization of concepts, independent and dependent variables, causation and correlation and developing scientific theories.: A scientific research methodology is a procedure for investigating phenomenon, collecting information, and revising or integrating old knowledge. In simple words, it's gaining new knowledge and coming up with new scientific theories through verifying or falsifying hypothesis in scientific manner. In order for a scientific research methodology to gain "scientific" aspects, the methods of inquiries must be empirical and measurable evidence. When we say, scientific research methodology, it can be separated into two distinct aspects which are "positivism" and "analysism". In positivism, scientific research are done through deductive methods while in analytic method, scientific research are done through inductive methods; moreover, positivism does not allow subjective interpretation, while analytic method allows various different interpretations and takes into account the effects of environment. In this sense, we are talking about "analytic" scientific research methodology that we are trying to gain knowledge and scientific theory through observing and interpreting a collection of data. According to Albert Einstein, science is a "naming system" which means that science is a mechanism which tries to name and make theories about phenomenon around human lives. In this way, scientific research methodology can be called as a way to name and theorize phenomenons through verifying or falsifying "epistemological assumptions" based on "epistemological empiricism." Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which tries to obtain the essence of truth. To sum up, the scientific research methodology (in analytic method) refers to a method in which uses empiricism to come up with scientific theory by observing/naming the phenomenon and verifying/falsifying the hypothesis through collection of data. Now, let's have a look at how its done, the process. Formulation of hypothesis would be the first and the key concept in scientific research methodology. A hypothesis is a statement which talks about a relationship between two phenomenon. To explain, a hypothesis is a sentence which explains how X and Y are related or connected. If I have to formulate my own hypothesis, I can ask Is voting in South Korea related to income? Then, my hypothesis would be "In South Korea, income is related to / affects voting behavior." Then, this hypothesis is ready and set for verification through collection of empirical data; however, before that we need to clarify and define some of the operational definitions in the hypothesis. Operationalization of concepts means we need to clarify and specify some of the important concepts/ terms in the hypothesis in order to conduct precise collection of data. For example, in my hypothesis, the word income is very ambiguous...

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