This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Introduction To Reflection And Refraction Essay

5216 words - 21 pages

1.1 IntroductionThis "book" is not intended to be a vast, definitive treatment of everything that is knownabout geometric optics. It covers, rather, the geometric optics of first-year students,whom it will either help or confuse yet further, though I hope the former. The part ofgeometric optics that often causes the most difficulty, particularly in getting the rightanswer for homework or examination problems, is the vexing matter of sign conventionsin lens and mirror calculations. It seems that no matter how hard we try, we always getthe sign wrong! This aspect will be dealt with in Chapter 2. The present chapter dealswith simpler matters, namely reflection and refraction at a plane surface, except for abrief foray into the geometry of the rainbow. The rainbow, of course, involves refractionby a spherical drop. For the calculation of the radius of the bow, only Snell's law isneeded, but some knowledge of physical optics will be needed for a fuller understandingof some of the material in section 1.7, which is a little more demanding than the rest ofthe chapter.1.2 Reflection at a Plane SurfaceThe law of reflection of light is merely that the angle of reflection r is equal to the angleof incidence r. There is really very little that can be said about this, but I'll try and saywhat little need be said.i. It is customary to measure the angles of incidence and reflection from the normal tothe reflecting surface rather than from the surface itself.i rFIGURE I.12ii. Some curmudgeonly professors may ask for the lawS of reflection, and will give youonly half marks if you neglect to add that the incident ray, the reflected ray and thenormal are coplanar.iii. A plane mirror forms a virtual image of a real object:or a real image of a virtual object:FIGURE I.2• O I °FIGURE I.3• I O °3iv. It is usually said that the image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front ofit. In the case of a virtual object (i.e. light converging on the mirror, presumably fromsome large lens somewhere to the left) you'd have to say that the image is as far in frontof the mirror as the object is behind it!v. If the mirror were to move at speed v away from a real object, the virtual imagewould move at speed 2v. I'll leave you to think about what happens in the case of avirtual If the mirror were to rotate through an angle θ (or were to rotate at an angular speedω), the reflected ray would rotate through an angle 2θ (or at an angular speed 2ω).vii. Only smooth, shiny surfaces reflect light as described above. Most surfaces, suchas paper, have minute irregularities on them, which results in light being scattered inmany directions. Various equations have been proposed to describe this sort ofscattering. If the reflecting surface looks equally bright when viewed from all directions,the surface is said to be a perfectly diffusing Lambert's law surface. Reflectionaccording to the r = i law of reflection, with the incident ray,...

Find Another Essay On Introduction to reflection and refraction

Introduction to Linguistics Reflection Paper

1137 words - 5 pages Final EssayEvery human knows at least one language, spoken or signed. Linguistics is the science of language, including the sounds, words, and grammar rules. Words in languages are finite, but sentences are not. It is this creative aspect of human language that sets it apart from animal languages, which are essentially responses to stimuli. The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language. These rules include

A Brief Introduction to Theory X and Y

775 words - 3 pages A Brief Introduction to Theory X and YMcGregor related employee motivation to the style of management. He categorized employee behavior into two types - Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X employees are categorized as lazy and unmotivated and only worked when forced to and never worked hard. By contrast Theory Y employees seemed to like work, were eager to please and worked hard on their own initiative. McGregor suggested that employee behavior was

Sikhism: An Introduction to a New Religion and Culture

2161 words - 9 pages Sikhism: An Introduction to a New Religion and Culture Throughout the past several years and as a member of a very small religious group, I have made a point to study world religions and their corresponding cultural groups. As such, I feel that I have a decent grasp on the basics of the major world religions -- at least from an outsider’s viewpoint. However, one group I feel I have the least amount of knowledge on is the Sikhs. The tidbits

Ecology - An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

3396 words - 14 pages An Introduction to Ecology and the BiosphereThe Scope of EcologyI. Ecology (Greek)A. Scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environmentB. Involve organisms with open systemsC. Naturalists made the process of observing and describing organisms in their natural habitats an end in itselfD. Becoming increasingly experimentalE. Rapidly growing and exciting science due to field experimentsII. The interactions between

I-Search Research Paper: Diplomacy in the United States and Saudi Arabia Introduction to Diplomacy

1646 words - 7 pages ? Reflection The most difficult parts of this paper so far has been to make sure everything I am including in my paper is important paper and that I don’t detail a lot on one topic and make sure I include citations and other sufficient information. As I continue to work on this project I have to make sure I meet the many requirements. Conclusion: focused on issue Strengths and Weaknesses

Examining Contrasting Views of Texts in Introduction to Scholarship in Modern Languages and Literatures

1699 words - 7 pages .   Works Cited Barthes, Roland. “From Work to Text.” The Norton Anthology of Theory & Criticism. Leitch, Vincent B., Ed. London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010. 1326-1331. Print. Bartholomae, David. “Composition.” Introduction to Scholarship in Modern Languages and Literatures. Nicholls, David G., Ed. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2007. 103-125. Print. Bernstein, David. “Poetics.” Introduction to

Economic Concepts Worksheet Dys Singa University of Phoenix MBA 503: Introduction To Finance And Accounting

918 words - 4 pages changing employers and settled for the opportunity to continue to work in an environment I enjoy, anticipating a better salary in the future.Societal wants outweighs its available resources, the cost of the resource you get is the value of that which is sacrificed to obtain it. "Opportunity cost is the amount of other products that must be forgone or sacrificed to obtain 1 unit of a specific good" (McConnell & Brue, 2004).ReferencesMcConnell, C. R. and Brue, S. L. (2004). Economics: Principles, problems and policies,16e. Retrieved January 28, 2004, from University of Phoenix, Week TworEsource. MBA 503: Introduction to Finance and Accounting Web site.

Cost descriptors Dys Singa University of Phoenix MBA 503: Introduction to Finance and Accounting

1428 words - 6 pages performance against the industry norms to attain financial stability. Fixed overhead costs and sunk cost are irrelevant as they have no bearing on the decision making process.ReferencesBlock S. B., and Hirt G. A.. (2005). Foundation of Financial Management, 11e.Retrieved April 17, 2008, from University of Phoenix, Week Two, rEsource.MBA 503: Introduction to Finance and Accounting Web site.McConnell, C. R. and Brue, S. L. (2004). Economics: Principles, problems and policies,16e. Retrieved January 28, 2004, from University of Phoenix, Week TworEsource. MBA 503: Introduction to Finance and Accounting Web site.

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremey Bentham

1239 words - 5 pages generally considered a moral theory that was found by Jeremey Bentham, a 19th century English philosopher and a social reformer. In 1923, he wrote a book called An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Bentham idea was to understand the concept of happiness and that it is the definitive goal to all human beings. Bentham believes in a principle in which humans should be motivated by pain and pleasure, Bentham said in his book, “Nature

Introduction to Poetry, You´re Missing, and My Papa´s Waltz

1142 words - 5 pages “Introduction to Poetry” by Billy Collins People are apt to learn new information, but it takes time, practice, and a good teacher, in order to do it correctly and to retain understanding. This poem shows the author’s (a teacher’s) frustration towards the elementary mistake that inexperienced readers or students make when poetry is first introduced. Unable to read the poem properly, they often do not capture a poem’s natural beauty and truth

Final Essay for Introduction to Fiction: Lituary insight of Jamaica Kincaid and her story titled "Girl"

821 words - 3 pages CitedKincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Story and Its Writer: An Introduction to Short Fiction. Ann Charters. Boston New York: Bedford St Martins Publishers Inc., 2003.Works ConsultedContemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 68. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1991. 204.Green, Carol Hurd, and Mason, Mary Grimley, eds. American Women Writers. New York: Continuum, 1994.Magill, Frank N., ed. Masterpieces of African-American Literature. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1992.Showalter, Elaine, ed. Modern American Women Writers. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.

Similar Essays

Reflection And Refraction Experiment Essay

1346 words - 5 pages INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this experiment was to test the validity of the Law of Reflection and Snell's Law (Also known as the Law of Refraction).Reflection is defined as the reversal in direction of a particle stream or wave upon encountering a boundary. The law of reflection states that the angle of reflection and angle of incidence are equal, with each angle being measured from the normal to the boundary:Refraction is defined as the bending

Reflection And Refraction Essay

627 words - 3 pages Will the future of optics still be based on mirrors, prisms and lenses? To investigate this question some background information on the key concepts of light, reflection and refraction will be covered first. Light is defined as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength. Light is also known as luminous energy or radiant energy. The speed of light is

Introduction To Addictions And Substance Use Disorders

719 words - 3 pages Comparison of Models Paper Corey C. Taylor Sr. Grand Canyon University Introduction to Addictions and Substance Use Disorders PNC-501 (PEO101) Ron Rousell April 30, 2014 Comparison of Models Paper Cognitive-Behavioral Models The cognitive behavioral models say that incentives make way for the right conditions for the need for drug abuse. Drug use is associated with experiences such as self-exploration, religious insights, altering moods

Introduction To Longwall Mining And Subsidence

3261 words - 13 pages Introduction to Longwall Mining and Subsidence Prepared by Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants Level 1 / 228 Victoria Avenue - Chatswood - NSW 2067 PO Box 3047 - Willoughby North - NSW 2068 Tel. (02) 9413 3777 Fax. (02) 9413 3822 Email: Revision A August 2007 Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants August 2007 i DOCUMENT REGISTER Revision Description Author Reviewed Date A 2/8/07 . Mine