Introduction To Various Biological Molecules Essay

1580 words - 6 pages

1. ProteinStructureThere are a total of 4 types of protein structures. Primary protein structureo Chain of amino acid Secondary protein structureo Occurs when the sequence of amino acids are linked together by hydrogen bonds Tertiary protein structureo Occurs when certain attraction are present between alpha helices and pleated sheets Quaternary protein structureo Protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain.FunctionProtein essential to the cell. They are involved in practically every function performed by a cell. Life, chemically speaking, is nothing but the function of proteins although the information to make a unique protein resides in DNA. Functional proteins are those molecules that do everything that happens within us.2. FatsStructureAny fat molecule, also known as a fatty acid, has: Chain of hydrocarbons, attached to each other in either a single- or double-bond (a hydrocarbon consists of a carbon atom with at least 1 hydrogen atom "bonded" or "connected" to it) Carboxyl group at one end of the chain (a carboxyl group consists of a carbon atom, an oxygen atom, and an oxygen-hydrogen or hydroxide group).There are 4 different types of fats: Saturated fato Saturated fat has no double bond between any hydrocarbon chain and therefore allows the fat molecule to be 'saturated' with as much hydrogen as it can hold. Unsaturated fato A fat is defined as unsaturated if it has at least one double-bond in the hydrocarbon chain. This double-bond results in less hydrogen in the chain than if there were no double-bonds. Hence, the chain is unsaturated with respect to the maximum hydrogen that could be present.o There are 2 types of unsaturated fats Mono-unsaturated fats They contain a single double bond chain so it does not contain much hydrogen. Poly-unsaturated fats They contain more than one double bond chain and has lesser hydrogen than saturated fat. Trans fatty acidso Trans fatty acids manipulate with unsaturated fats and make them more solid than liquid. It is a form of partial hydrogenation and changes the configuration if the unsaturated fat molecules. Omega fatty acidso They are also form of unsaturated fato These fatty acids all have double bonds with the Cis configuration; the number 3 or 6 refers to the distance of the first double bond in the hydrocarbon chain counting from the last hydrocarbon in the chain.FunctionFat is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Fats provide the "essential" fatty acids, which are not made by the body and must be obtained from food. Linoleic acid is the most important essential fatty acid, especially for the growth and development of infants. Fatty acids provide the raw materials that help in the control of blood pressure , blood clotting, inflammation, and other body functions.3. Reducing...

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