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Invention Relating To Alloy Of Copper

1408 words - 6 pages

The present invention relates to an alloy of copper having high conductivity and low resistivity. Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. Electric charge is the property of matter that causes it to experience a force when close to other electrically charged matter.
Conduction in metals must follow Ohm's Law, which states that the current is directly proportional to the electric field applied to the metal. The key variable in applying Ohm's Law is a metal's resistivity. Resistivity is the opposite of electrical conductivity, evaluating how strongly a metal opposes the flow of electric current. This is commonly measured across the opposite faces of a one-meter cube of material and described as an ohm meter (Ω⋅m). Resistivity is often represented by the Greek letter rho (ρ). Electrical conductivity, on the other hand, is commonly measured by Siemens per metre (S⋅m−1) and represented by the Greek letter sigma (σ). One Siemens is equal to the reciprocal of one ohm.
Metals in general have high electrical conductivity. This conductivity comes from the large number of delocalized electrons in the outer orbit which are free to move. The atoms of metal elements are characterized by the presence of valence electrons - electrons in the outer shell of an atom that are free to move about. It is these 'free electrons' that allow metals to conduct an electric current. Because valence electrons are free to move they can travel through the lattice that forms the physical structure of a metal. Under an electric field, free electrons move through the metal, passing an electric charge as they move. The transfer of energy is strongest when there is little resistance. The most effective conductors of electricity are metals that have a single valence electron that is free to move and causes a strong repelling reaction in other electrons. This is the case in the most conductive metals, such as silver and copper, who each have a single valence electron that moves with little resistance and causes a strong repelling reaction.
Even without an external electric field applied, these electrons move about randomly due to thermal energy but on an average, there is zero net current within the metal. In an imaginary plane through which a wire passes, the number of electrons moving from one side to the other in any period of time is exactly equal to the number passing in the opposite direction. When a metal wire is connected across two terminals of a DC voltage source such as a battery, the source places an electric field across the conductor. The moment contact is made; the free electrons of the conductor are forced to drift toward the positive terminal under the influence of this field. The free electrons are therefore the current carriers in a typical solid conductor. When an AC voltage source is applied electrons will change direction of drift depending on the positive and negative cycle, Count of the change in...

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