Background of the Study
1. Introduction to the topic
The Higher Education of Cambodia was first established in 1948 with the name the National Institute of Law, Politics and Economics (Dyna, 2009). Many other higher education institutions were then established and operated after independence in 1953. From 1953 to 1970, there were nine universities in Phnom Penh as well as in provinces (Ratana, 2013). In 1970 a coup took place and the previous regime namely the Kingdom of Cambodia headed by Prince Norodom Sihaknouk was overthrown replaced by an American pro-regime called Khmer Republic. In this regime, Cambodia was facing with both social and political issues. The Republican government had to fight with the Khmer Rouge and the Viet Cong. As a result many universities were destroyed and forced to close; however, some universities were still in operation and few other universities were established (Rany, 2012).
In 1975 Khmer Rouge took over Cambodia ending the previous Khmer Republic. A new era of what is called the year of destruction began. The previous schools ranging from kindergartens to universities were all closed. Professionals from any groups including teachers were targeted of suspicion and execution. The previous system of education was formally destroyed by Khmer Rouge (IIEP, 2011).
After the Khmer Rouge Regime collapsed in 1979, everything was started over from almost nothing. Schools were rebuilt and reopened. Over three decades of redevelopment, existing universities have continued, and many other universities have been established. According to a summary report by the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport, by the year 2014, there are 105 higher education institutions in Cambodia comprising of 39 public and 66 private institutions (MoEYS, 2014).
As the ASEAN integration approaches and the needs of the job market increase, the number of students enrolling in higher education increase day by day. By statistic, from 2009 to 2013, the number of students enrolling in higher education rises up to 207,000 (HE, n.d.). Interestingly, this is considered as a good sign of the country’s human resources development.
As a matter of fact, among those 207,000 students, some have not enrolled in only a single university. Phirom (2010) found that more than half of the 234 students from three universities attended two higher education institution either at the same time or one after another. There is no clear evident from previous studies to answer the question why those students decide to attend two universities. Possible hypothesis are given such as job opportunities, peer pressures, and pressure from parents.
Enrolling into two different universities at the same time, on the other hand, has become an issue. Despite some advantages, the downsides of dual universities enrollment seems to be greater. The challenges the students encounter as well as the learning productivity may be a big concern among the educational...