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Investigating The Factors Which Affect The Rate Of Reaction Between Limestone And Acid Rain(Hydrochloric Acid)

6933 words - 28 pages

Background knowledgeRainwater is always slightly acidic, as carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in rain to form carbonic acid. Acid rain is rain, snow or fog that is polluted by acid in the atmosphere and damages the environment. Two common air pollutants acidify rain: sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX). When these substances are released into the atmosphere, they can be carried over long distances by prevailing winds before returning to earth as acidic rain, snow, fog or dust. When the environment cannot neutralize the acid being deposited, damage occurs. When an acid is neutralised by a carbonateA SALT, WATER, and CARBON DIOXIDE.Acid + Carbonate à Salt + Water + Carbon DioxideHydrochloric Acid + Calcium Carbonate à Calcium Chloride +Carbon Dioxide +Water2HCl + CaCO3 à CaCl2 + CO2 + H2OSecondary SourceInternetFactors To Vary And ControlThe variables I will be considering are:· Pressure at which the experiment ensues.· Surface area of the limestone chip(s).· Temperature at which the reaction takes place.· Volume of acid.· Molarities of acid.The reason that these are the variables is that if each one was changed even if in a little way, they affect the rate of reaction either making it faster or slower. Though in my experiment I am trying to find out how changing the molarities of the acid affects the rate of reaction. So in this way I must only have the molarities of the acid as a variable, and everything else in the experiment must remain fixed for the experiment to be fair. All of the variables above affect the rates of reactions in their own ways:· Pressure at which the experiment takes place will affect the experiment as the reaction will occur quicker with more pressure as there will be more gaseous particles and less space for the particles, so the particles will strike each other more frequently. I have decided to use room pressure, as the whole experiment will be done in the classroom at the same time. In this way the pressure will not change and thus making this factor in the experiment, fair.· With a larger surface area of the limestone chips, there will be more for the acid particles to react with, as the total surface area will be more so therefore more particles of the limestone chip. I have decided to use 1g of medium sized chip(s) as I think this will provide a good set of results without the experiment reacting too slowly or too quickly.· The temperature at which the reaction takes place may affect the rate of reaction as with a greater heat the reaction occurs quicker. The temperature at which the experiment takes place, will be at around room temperature, as the experiment will be done in one time, the temperature will remain a fixed variable.· The volume of acid will make a...

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