This chapter gives a brief description of a magnetic card access control security system. It briefly narrates a general background of the magnetic access control system. The chapter also describes the processes followed by the system from when a card is provided at the entrance until the user is logged out of the system. The components of the magnetic card access control system and the types of magnetic card access control system are narrated. Furthermore, the chapter gives scenarios of implementations narrated with relevance to educational facilities. Finally the advantages and disadvantages related to the implementation of the system are discussed.
2.1 Magnetic access control system
Magnetic access control system is a security system that uses a magnetic card to hold identity information in a magnetic strip either for access to a place or for identity purposes (Oke et al., 2009). Magnetic card access control security has gained recognition as one of the secure methods of protecting areas and building in the recent years. People and organizations have transformed from physical locks and keys to magnetic cards to secure their premises using magnetic card access control security systems. Access control has also risen to be a measure concern for businesses, organizations, education centres to secure data, resources and many other assets (Olagbedi, 2013).
There are many different ways of controlling access to buildings. According to Taherdoost et al. (2011), existing previous work agree that access control systems are diverse but they all share a similar goal of verifying legitimate users and provide access to sanctioned individuals to access resources. Al-Khouri and Bal (2007) describes the ways used to control access to a facility and included voice recognition, face recognition and card based systems as some of the security ways that provide security today. Card based access control systems have been widely adopted by large corporations for its legitimacy.
Magnetic access control system is a multi unit security system that includes a credit card sized device with magnetic band or chip integrated within plastic card made out of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (Acharya et al., 2013). The plastic card is of a credit card size and shape. Smart card functions with other authentication technologies to store combinations of password files for unique identification of a legitimate card holder (Lawler and Arslan, 2005). This is a card that has its own microprocessor that can do operations on data, alter the data and store it on the card.
In 1970, Dr. Kunitaka Arimura of Japan filed the first and only patent on the smart card concept (Indepreet, 2010). There have been many claims regarding the inventor of magnetic access cards. The concept of embedding microchips in the plastic card was first experimented by two German inventors, Jurgen Dethloff and Helmut Grotrupp in 1968, then Motorola and Bull produced the first smart card microchip in...