Investigation: How Does Channging The Concentration Of A Substance Affect The Rate Of Reaction?

3909 words - 16 pages

A chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms are redistributed, resulting in a change in the molecular composition of substances.The reaction rate is how quickly a reaction occurs. I will be using the reaction rate during my investigation to see how the concentration of acid effects the reaction rate. To do this I will be using the following reactionHydrochloric + Calcium Ü Calcium + Carbon + Water Acid Carbonate Chloride Dioxide powder 2HCl + CaCO3 Ü CaCl2 + CO2 + H2OI will be using these substances because I know from my research and previous experiment that these two substances react well together. So, I will be able to have quick and efficient experiments.I will be using the following equipment and setting the equipment up as shown in the diagram.1. Conical Flask2. Gas Syringe3. Rubber plug4. Stop Clock5. Top Pan Balance6. Heat Proof mat7. Clamp and Boss8. Clamp Stand I will be testing to see how the concentration of the hydrochloric acid effects the reaction rate. I will be able to see this by measuring the gas using the gas syringe. As carbon dioxide is released during the experiment, I will measure how much carbon dioxide will be produced in certain amounts of time. I will then draw a graph to show how much carbon dioxide had been produced in several time intervals. I will then take the gradient at one point in the graph where each line is straight.This will show me the reaction rate of each experiment. I will use five different concentrations of acid. Below are the different concentrations I will be using.Quantity of HCl (ml) Quantity of H20 (ml)50 045 540 1035 1530 2025 25From this information, I can work out what molar, the acid is. I will do this by using a special formula, the formula is:Volume of acid X 2Total volume of solutionDividing the volume of acid by the volume of gas will show how much of the solution is made up of acid. However you have to multiply this answer by two, this is because I will be using a two molar acid as my original hydrochloric acid, which I will then add water to.I can now work out the molars of each solution. They will be:Quantity of acid (ml) Quantity of Water (ml) Molar (M)50 0 2.045 5 1.840 10 1.635 15 1.430 20 1.225 25 1.0I have decided to use 50 ml of acid as my upper limit, because it should give me a relatively quick reaction, so the experiment will take only a short amount of time. I will use 25 ml of acid as my lower limit if I start taking readings below that measurement, the reactions will start to get very slow and so take up a long...

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