Investigation: How Does The Concentration Affect The Rate Of A Reaction?

1645 words - 7 pages

Investigation:How does the concentration affect the rate of a reaction?Aim:To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid.Reaction:I will investigate the reaction between different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate solution with hydrochloric acid.Na2S2O3(aq) + HCL(aq) = S(s) = H2O(l) + SO2(g) + NaCl(s)(sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid = sulphur + water + sulphur dioxide + sodium chloride)Background InformationThere are three ways of measuring the rate of reaction:1. By observing the time taken for a precipitate to obscure a mark on a piece of paper/card.2. Change in mass (usually caused by a gas being given off)3. The volume of gas given off by using a syringe.There are four factors that affect the rates of reaction:1. Temperature.2. Concentration (pressure in the case of a gas).3. Size of particles (surface area).4. Presence of a catalyst.The collision theory is a way of explaining the above factors which effect the rate of reaction. The four factors can be explained in terms of increasing the number of collisions, and in terms of temperature, increases the rate at which collisions occur.TemperatureWhen temperature is increased, the particles move more quickly, hence increasing the number of collisions. The temperature increase makes the particles move faster by giving them more energy. It is this way that collisions can happen at a faster rate. The temperature will be controlled in this experiment. This is because we are only testing the effects of changing the concentration, and if the temperature varies too, we will not get an accurate result. We will make sure the temperature is the same all the way through.Concentration (pressure)If the solution is made more concentrated, it means the number of particles for either one or more of the reactants have increased, making collisions likely to happen more often. In a gas, increasing the concentration means the particles are more squashed together, so there are going to be more collisions. The concentration in this experiment will be changed in order to test the effect it has on the rate of reaction. Each time we will use less water and more sodium thiosulphate in order for the concentration to be changed.Surface areaBy breaking up a solid reactant, you increase the surface area. This means the particles in the solution will have more area to work on so there will be more collisions. We will not be using solids in this experiment, so we cannot alter the surface area.CatalystBy introducing a catalyst particles have a surface area they can stick to where they bump into eachother, increasing the number of collisions.A catalyst can also decrease the amount of energy required for a reaction to happen. A catalyst will not be used in this experiment.The reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid...

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