Investigation Of Friction Factor In Forging Process Of Ti 6 Al 4 V Through Isothermal Ring Compression Test

2092 words - 9 pages

1. Introduction
Friction at the tool/workpiece interface in the forging process has a significant effect on the tool life, load and energy requirement, formability and the quality of the finished part [1]. In the metal forming simulation, friction factor is a key parameter that must be considered in the model to obtain reasonable results. In the precision forging of the aerofoil sections, the friction factor has a significant effect on the pressure distribution at tool/workpiece interface and consequently elastic deflection of the tool [2]; therefore the precise determination of the friction factor is important. Several methods are developed to determine the magnitude of the friction factor, ...view middle of the document...

They concluded that if the specimen height decreases while the ratio of the external diameter to internal diameter used by Avitzur kept constant, then the values shown in Avitzur's calibration curves decreases proportionally. Lee and Altan considered the bulging in the calibration curve developing and reported agreement with experiments in low frictions [11]. Depierre and Gurney extended the mathematical solutions to consider varying friction factors [12]. Felder and Montagut performed ring compression tests on steel XC 42 at 1250 °C and reported that the tool velocity and consequently time had a significant effect on friction, i.e. if the velocity increases, the friction decreases [13]. Investigations of Venugopal et al. by the ring compression test at ambient temperature up to 1000 °C on Armco iron specimens did not show strong dependence of the friction factor on temperature [14]. Powelski et al. concluded that using lubricant and increasing the temperature results in an increase in the friction factor and rising the strain rate causes a decrease in the friction factor [15]. Sadeghi and Dean reported that in the forging of steel by using graphite as lubricant, increasing the temperature results in increasing the friction factor [16]. The numerical results of finite element analysis presented by Robert et al. showed that the calibration curves of Ti-6Al-4V are different from aluminum alloy-2024-O [17]. Wang and Lenard studied the effect of glass based lubricant in the temperature range of 900-975 °C and strain rates of 0.005-5 s-1 and concluded that increasing the strain rate results in the friction factor decrease from 0.35 to 0.1 [18]. Rudkins et al. performed the ring compression tests on a medium carbon steel and a lead free cutting steel. Their results showed that increasing the temperature causes an increase in the level of friction [19]. Dutton et al. [20] investigated the ring compression test of α2 titanium-aluminide samples at 910 °C and the nominal strain rates of 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5 s-1. Boron nitride film on silicon nitride platens and graphite film on TZM platens were selected as lubrication medium. They concluded that the calibration curves were independent of strain rate sensitivity and flow softening; moreover, the friction factor was insensitive to the strain rate. Li et al. studied the ring compression test of Ti-6Al-4V at temperatures 750 to 1000 °C and strain rates 0.05-15 s-1 using the A5 glass [21] and graphite [22] as lubricant without considering the effect of material properties on the calibration curves. They concluded that at the temperatures lower than 950 °C, the strain rate has no significant effect on the friction factor of A5, and increasing the temperature, decreases the friction factor. At the temperatures above 950 °C, the friction factor increases with a decrease of the strain rate. Using graphite leads to increasing the friction factor by increasing the temperature or decreasing strain rate up to the...

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