Invisible Oddness Essay

3253 words - 13 pages

[Type text] [Type text] [Type text]THE INVISIBLE ODDNESS OF LANGUAGEAbstractLanguage can stimulate simulations of perception. But it is not yet clear how sequences of such perceptions can be integrated with one another, for example in response to sustained texts, such as literary texts. One possibility is that readers assume a version of the body endowed with extra powers, such as omniscience. But this account relies on implausible post hoc explanations. A second possibility is that the integration of perceptual simulations offline need be no more problematic than the integration of gappy and incomplete perceptual cues online. But online cues can be integrated through grounding in specific points in time and space. I propose that perceptual simulations can be integrated through patterns associated with language and texts themselves.KeywordsEmbodied, literary, text, language, perception, patterning, integrationTHE INVISIBLE ODDNESS OF LANGUAGEIntroductionHearing and reading language can produce simulations of perception (examples include Kosslyn et al 2005 and Speer et al 2009). These can be experienced both at and below the level of awareness. They include mental imagery, simulations of actions and the organisation of incoming information over time by perceptual event boundaries (examples include Kosslyn et al 2005, Hauk et al 2008, and Speer et al 2009). Work in the cognitive sciences has revealed an unexpected degree of overlap between the neural resources used for perception, and those used for perceptual simulations (Reddy et al 2009). In this essay I investigate the ways in which perceptual simulations generated by texts might be integrated, and suggest that this integration is different from the grounding of online perceptions in the body. I start by identifying some general differences between linguistic and perceptual input. Then I look at two differences between language and perception in more depth, using internal evidence from literary texts. The first of these differences is that the interpretation and integration of online perceptual cues into a unified experience is grounded in the unity of the perceiving body and its location in time and space. For example I can integrate the sound of a stone dropping in a pond with the sight of a companion's raised arm at least in part because the timing and distance of both cues is judged relative to my body. I will argue that perceptual simulations arising from language, unlike online perceptual cues, cannot always be integrated in a single body in this way. The information from a text does not arrive at either the speed or tempo of online cues, and is not specifically gauged to the location of the reader's or hearer's body. The second, related, difference is that even those perceptual simulations compatible with a single body would, in online perception, arise from behaviour incompatible with the constraints of social norms and self-protection. I go on to suggest two possible explanations of...

Find Another Essay On Invisible oddness

Hamlet as Victim and Hero Essay

1301 words - 5 pages Hamlet as Victim and Hero      Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Shakespearean tragedy, tells the story of Prince Hamlet, who gained the knowledge of a terrible incident that his kingdom had suffered. Claudius, the king of Denmark and Hamlet's uncle, had killed his own brother, the king, who was also the father of Hamlet, and married his brother's widow. Hamlet suffered these traumas to a severe degree, and his only relief was to defeat his

Essay on Light and Dark in Antigone

1188 words - 5 pages Use of Light and Dark in Antigone   The "Golden Age" of Greece is noted for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos

charant Creon as the Main Character of Antigone

1231 words - 5 pages Creon as the Main Character of Antigone   Throughout the Greek play Antigone by Sophocles, there exists a dispute as to who should receive the designation of main character. Antigone, the daughter of the cursed King Oedipus, as well as Creon, stately king of Thebes, both appear as the key figures in this historic play. I believe that Creon, king of Thebes, should be considered the main character in this work of Greek theater. Three

Free Macbeth Essays: Sleep and Sleeplessness

525 words - 2 pages The Sleep and Sleeplessness Motif in Macbeth We have consciences that function to tell us the difference between right and wrong. If we have clear consciences, we usually possess the ability to sleep. But when our consciences are full of guilt, we experience a state of sleeplessness. In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses the sleep and sleeplessness motif to represent Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's consciences and the effect Macbeth's conscience has on

Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield

898 words - 4 pages Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield   Efficacy lies at the heart of human desires for immortality. Characters throughout literature and art are depicted as wanting to step aside and see what their world would be like without their individual contributions. The literary classic A Christmas Carol and the more recent, but ageless, film It’s Wonderful Life both use outside influences (three ghosts and Clarence the Angel

Essay on Identity in Song of Solomon

2172 words - 9 pages Searching for Identity in Song of Solomon         Abstract: Whether Africans really fly or just escape a monumental burden, perhaps only through death, is a decision Toni Morrison has apparently left to her readers. Never the less, no matter what you believe, within Song of Solomon, the suggestion is, that in order to "fly" you must go back to the beginning, back to your roots. You must learn the "art" from the old messages.   O

The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine

904 words - 4 pages The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine    The stories of Oedipus, as told through Seneca's Oedipus and Cocteau's The Infernal Machine, contain both similarites and differences. Both authors portray the character of Oedipus as being obstinate, ignorant, and inquisitive. Yet Seneca and Cocteau differ on their interpretation of the motives that propelled these characteristics of Oedipus. Seneca portrays Oedipus as a

Okonkwo's Tragic Flaws in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart

3121 words - 12 pages        An increasing amount of contemporary literature traces its origins back to the early works of Greece. For ages, humans have fascinated themselves with the impossible notion of perfection. Unrealistic expectations placed on those who were thought to be the noblest or most honorable individuals have repeatedly led to disappointment and frustration, either on the part of those particular individuals or those they influence. Classic

Sophocles' Antigone - Antigone Must Challenge Creon

889 words - 4 pages Antigone Must Challenge Creon in Antigone   In his "Funeral Oration" Pericles, Athens's leader in their war with other city-states, rallies the patriotism of his people by reminding them of the things they value. He encourages a sense of duty to Athens even to the point of self-sacrifice. He glorifies the free and democratic Athenian way of life and extravagantly praises those willing to die for it. In Antigone, Creon, Thebes's leader in

The Role of Women in Homer’s Iliad

796 words - 3 pages The Role of Women in Homer’s Iliad Homer’s Iliad is undoubtedly focused on its male characters: Achilles, primarily, but also Hector and Agamemnon. Nevertheless, it seems that the most crucial characters in the epic are female. Homer uses the characters of Thetis, Andromache, and Helen as a basis for comparison to the male characters. Homer wants his audience to see and understand the folly of his male characters in choosing war over peace

A Comparison of Butler's Life and Kindred

1915 words - 8 pages A Comparison of Butler's Life and Kindred   What lies in the mind of an author as he or she begins the long task of writing a fiction novel? This question can be answered if the author's life is studied and then compared to the work itself. Octavia E. Butler's life and her novel Kindred have remarkable comparisons. This essay will point out important events of Butler's life and how they link to the mentioned novel. Octavia Estelle

Similar Essays

Invisible Oddness Essay

3253 words - 13 pages [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]THE INVISIBLE ODDNESS OF LANGUAGEAbstractLanguage can stimulate simulations of perception. But it is not yet clear how sequences of such perceptions can be integrated with one another, for example in response to sustained texts, such as literary texts. One possibility is that readers assume a version of the body endowed with extra powers, such as omniscience. But this account relies on implausible post hoc

Aesthetics Of Invisible Man, By Ralph Ellison

1204 words - 5 pages Ralph Ellison painstakingly crafted a separate world in Invisible Man , a novel that succeeds because it is an intricate aesthetic creation -- humane, compassionate, and yet gloriously devoid of a moral. Social comment is neither the aim nor the drive of art, and Ellison did not attempt to document a plight. He created a place where race is reflected and distorted, where pithy generalities are dismissed, where personal and aesthetic prisms

Reality And Illusion In Shakespeare's Hamlet Reality, Appearance And Deception

896 words - 4 pages Reality and Illusion in Hamlet   Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, begins with the appearance of a ghost, an apparition, possibly a hallucination. Thus, from the beginning, Shakespeare presents the air of uncertainty, of the unnatural, which drives the action of the play and develops in the protagonist as a struggle to clarify what only seems to be absolute and what is actually reality. Hamlet's mind, therefore, becomes the central force of the

Sub Plots In Hamlet Essay

1118 words - 4 pages Sub-plots in Hamlet   There are many things that critics say make Hamlet a "Great Work," one of which is the way that Shakespeare masterfully incorporates so many sub-plots into the story, and ties them all into the main plot of Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s murder. By the end of Act I, not only is the main plot identified, but many other sub-plots are introduced. Among the sub-plots are trust in the Ghost of King Hamlet, Fortinbras, and