Iranian Politics Essay

2423 words - 10 pages

Daswani, Bhawana A.COMGOVT"Iran and the Iranian Political System"What role did foreign intervention play in the formation of Iran's pre-modern and modern political history?Iran is a state that Europeans never colonized. Iran's borders were not drawn artificially by colonial powers but result from the historical balance of power between its shahs and their neighboring rulers. Iran's geographic location between the Russian empire in the north and the British empire in the south allowed it to survive the heyday of European imperialism as an independent state. Both empires allowed it to remain a neutral buffer between their respective domains. As they became more familiar with Europe in the nineteenth century, they became more aware of their own backwardness. As long as Iran was less developed than Europe, it would forever remain vulnerable to imperialist encroachment. Consequently, "catching up with the West" became the major goal of Iran's intellectual and political elite. They believed that the rule of law was the secret of European superiority, whereas arbitrary rule prevailed in Iran. They concluded that constitutional government had to be introduced to strengthen the nation.At the outset of the 20th century, Iran was embroiled in a bifurcated struggle. On the one hand, Iranians struggled to maintain their national independence in the face of growing colonial pressures. Iran's geopolitical importance made it a central focus of the colonial "Great Game" between Russia and Great Britain. Ultimately, in August 1907, the two great powers decided to carve Iran up into spheres of influence; the agreement sealed Russian supremacy in the north and British supremacy in the south of Iran.Under the influence of ethnically defined European nationalism, the prerevolutionary elites of Iran defined Iran as a Persian country, ignoring its ethnic diversity. After the revolution, Twelver Shiism came to be the defining trait of the nation in the eyes of its leaders. This means that in recent Iranian history, two visions of what constitutes Iranian identity have contended with each other, one ignores the cultural specificity of non-Persian-speaking citizens, while the other marginalizes non-Twelver Shiites, of whom Sunnis are the largest community (approximately 10 percent).At the same time, a struggle was taking place within Iran's borders, as the country was undergoing the Constitutional Revolution (1905-11). A dispute over sugar prices finally sparked the first public protests of that revolution. The first majlis convened in October 1906 and set about the task of writing a constitution. An ailing Muzaffar al-Din Shah decreed the document they produced into law in December 1906, a few days before his death. In October 1907 the new king signed the Supplementary Fundamental Law. Together, the two documents formed the core of the Iranian Constitution.The course of the Constitutional Revolution would remain rocky for some years to come. Internal differences amongst...

Find Another Essay On Iranian Politics

The Iranian Revolution and the Russian Revolution

2056 words - 8 pages workers and peasants. The Marxist-Leninist state ideology revolved around democratic centralisation of the government and rejects capitalism and private ownership. The Bolshevik Party was the main ideological opposition to the Tsar and they believed that distancing politics and religion was the way forward for Russia. This is in stark contrast to the Iranian Revolutionary Ideology that believed returning Iran to Islamic fundamentalist state was

The Day Iran’s Democracy Died Essay

1602 words - 7 pages in the Majlis”(Iran Chamber). Surprisingly later the British owned AIOC (Anglo-Iranian Oil Company) proposed a fifty-fifty profit share, and soon sentiment for the nationalization of oil spread throughout the people.At the same time an assassination attempt on the Shah, or King of Iran encouraged him to take an increasing role in politics to increase his power. He organizes Iran Constituent Assembly and establishes The Senate of Iran to amend


1254 words - 5 pages model and leader - as opposed to being a passive symptom. A number of points support this latter contention - it is difficult to be convinced that the Iranian loyalty is simply dysfunctional. Firstly, unlike Reynold's narrative, Molavi seems to ignore the fact that Islam (in its original pureness or not) played a more important part than economics in the politics of Iran. According to Reynolds, the Iranian Revolution only partially started as a

All The Shah's Men: The Postive Change in Iran

606 words - 3 pages , but it cannot be achieved through foreign intervention” (Kinzer xvii). Iranians believe that America only value Iran for its vast energy resources, the role that they play in regional politics, and that Iranian basic rights and welfare is irrelevant to American policymakers. When the Americans overthrew the Prime Minister Iranian society lost one of the biggest opportunities to establish a democracy. If the U.S were to attack again it would halt

Jimmy Carter and the Iranian Hostage Crisis

1821 words - 8 pages James Earl Carter Jr- better known as our 39th president Jimmy Carter- was born on October 1st, 1924, in Plains, Georgia. He eventually chose a career path of politics although neither of his parents were politicians. His mother Lillian was a nurse, and his father, James Earl Carter Sr., was a businessman and farmer. He attended college in Georgia, and later enrolled in the United States Naval Academy where he completed a Bachelor of Science

The Twitter Revolution: A Force of Change in Iran

1358 words - 6 pages The Iranian green movement was the political movement that arose in 2009 after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected. The Movements goal was to remove Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office. According to The Washington Times and several other sources the election was rigged and “handed President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad an improbably lopsided victory” (The Washington Post). Ahmadinejad won the election with 66% of the votes which seemed impossible. Mir Hossein

The United States and Iran: To What Extent Did the United States Influence the Iranian Revolution?

2323 words - 10 pages . Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2004. Print. Moaddel, Monsoor. Class, Politics, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution. New York City: Columbia UP, 1993. Print. Parsa, Misagh. Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1989. Print. Stony Brook University Biography, Online, Internet, 30 April, 2014. Available "The Iranian Revolution, 1978-1979." Student

Iranian Revolution 1978

4686 words - 19 pages into the modernization, conspiratorial, reductionist, and doctrinal theories. The conventional wisdom of modernization theory, by assuming that modernization engenders increasing secularization, led even some of the better scholars of the Middle East in the 1960s to conclude that the power of the ulama and religious institutions was declining and that Islam would probably not play a crucial role in the future of Iranian politics. The

The Islamic Revolution and its Impac on Marji’s Family

2515 words - 10 pages The Pahlavi dynasty caused Marji’s family and other Iranian citizens to become dysphonic. The dynasty mismanaged Iranian money and was manipulated by Western nations. Enmity grew towards the monarchy and ultimately the Iranian people wanted a revolution. Marji’s family had strong animosity toward the Shah. Many of Marji’s family members as well as others fought against the Shah. But the Islamic Revolution took a turn that many were not

television in Iran

1493 words - 6 pages mentioned that Iran has been using the religion of Islam as a fundamental guideline in communicating government policy to the nation as a whole.1. BROADCAST MEDIA: TELEVISION.Article: The politics of satellite television in Iran.Alikhah F. (n.d.) argued about the proliferation of satellite television had caused serious concern for Iranian government. The concern was proven as the Iranian government created a regulatory law on satellite television in

The Cold War and The United States Foreign Policy

963 words - 4 pages later the US carried out yet another coup, this time in Iran. Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadeq fought for the nationalization of Iranian oil fields and was receiving support from communist leaning political parties. This angered both the US and Britain and caused a global embargo on Iranian oil, leading to an incredible decrease in Iranian oil production that greatly hurt the nation’s economy. The Shah of Iran, and a great ally to America

Similar Essays

Essay 2

1360 words - 6 pages laws and politics can often affect immigrants of other cultures in a different way virtually having an inversion positive result. The lives of the immigrant Latina women seeking opportunity and education in California compared to the immigrant Iranian women seeking liberation from traditional oppressive life of Iran proves an impeccable example of this. The politics on the immigration of Latina women have imposed an inhibition on their ability

Us Iran Relations Essay

2195 words - 9 pages is widespread believed that A stable relationship with Iran will alleviate the pressure upon Obama’s administration and the US foreign policy makers. This review attempts to explain evolution led to the need of reviewing the policy towards Iran, and to provide the US foreign policy towards Iran of a clear vision of Iranian domestic politics and its regional politics towards states in the region and the perspectives of these states as well. It

The Iranian Revolution Essay

1011 words - 4 pages specifically, the author (the main character) recalls having to wear the “obligatory veil in grade school (1980). In addition, the author recalls the Iranian government closing down all bilingual schools or any other symbols of “capitalism” and “decadence”. These became symbols of regression in the eyes of the Ayatollah and everyone must conform. The author struggles with the very idea of politics and religion during this period as laws of forced

Cultural Duality Among Iranians Essay

1724 words - 7 pages introduced in Iran. However, Shia Islam did not become the official religion of state until the period of the Safavid Kings in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries A. D. Indeed, by the nineteenth century as a result of colonial pressures, strict adherence to superstition, and inept leadership, Iranian society experienced a downward trend both economically and politically. Iranians have a very strong sense of class structure. In the past they