Irish Female Emigration: The Views Of Akenson And Lambert

1265 words - 6 pages

In the late nineteenth and twentieth century, 4 million women, especially young single women, emigrated from Ireland to various countries including The United States, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada (Hayes and Urquhart 159). Donald Harman Akenson, author of “Women and the Irish Diaspora: The Great Unknown,” describes categories of fleeing women, which include: Young widows with children, married women with children, couples with no children, dependent females who were not yet marriageable, single women who can marry, women and unmarried women who were not able to marry (Akenson 162). Despite Akenson’s seemingly comprehensive conceptualization of Irish female immigrants, he fails to describe other dimensions of the emigrant as noted by Sharon Lambert, author of “Irish Women’s Emigration to England 1922-1960: The Lengthening of Family Ties.” These essays are discrepant when describing the experiences of Irish female emigrants, particularly in the categories of women who emigrated, their motivation for emigration, and their connection with family members following emigration. Regardless of these discrepancies, Lambert and Akenson agree that Irish female emigration was over sexualized.
The first discrepancy includes Akenson’s lack of mentioning unwed women and couples facing an unexpected pregnancy who were forced to emigrate for the sake of their families’ reputation. Lambert describes a study with the goal of determining women’s motivation to emigrate and in some of the documented stories, women cited that they emigrated to conceal pregnancies. In Irish society, sex was seen as taboo and women were not taught about sex, which caused some women to become pregnant without fully realizing their actions (Lambert 183). In addition to pregnant females leaving independently, some couples fled together after an unplanned pregnancy. In her article, “Sexualizing Emigration: Discourses of Irish female immigration in the 1930s,” Louise Ryan highlights that unmarried pregnant mothers were “invisible immigrants” who arrived in places such England to deliver their children and have them adopted out in order to return fully concealing their pregnancy (Ryan 8). Through excluding this group of emigrants from his description, Askenson portrays that all women who emigrated with children were either married or widowed and that this emigration was voluntary.
Furthermore, the authors have discrepant explanations for women’s motivation to emigrate. Whereas Akenson describes that many women emigrated as a result of fleeing rigid familial, cultural, and economic structures, Lambert argues that this only constitutes a small portion of female emigrants. Akenson highlights that in post-famine Ireland, the familial-economic structure remained stagnant and did not grow with modernization. Under those circumstances, unmarried women could immigrate to increase their prospects of economic independence, marriage, and freedom. Specifically, Akenson notes that women...

Find Another Essay On Irish Female Emigration: The Views of Akenson and Lambert

Emigration: Compare and contrast the treatment of emigration and rural life in "The Country Boy" by John Murphy and "Philadelphia, Here I Come" by Brian Freill.

1640 words - 7 pages Emigration has been, and still is, a major factor in Ireland. It has been ever since the famine of 1845. Over one million people left Ireland to go to The United States Of America, and Irish people have been leaving ever since. It used to be that everyone who left, were leaving due to unemployment or lack of opportunities, but these days, even though there are a lot more jobs available and the economy is at its best ever, people are still

Analysis of The House That Built Me by Miranda Lambert

1646 words - 7 pages “The House That Built Me” by Miranda Lambert is a song that tells the story of a woman going back to visit her childhood home after experiencing life as an adult. The speaker discusses how she identifies her home with the memories and experiences that have molded her into the person she becomes, but she feels that something is missing from her life. She believes that going back to “the house” will help her recover her true sense of self. When

The Change of the Irish Question between 1800 and 1922

2845 words - 11 pages The Change of the Irish Question between 1800 and 1922 The Irish Question changed dramatically between the years 1800 and 1922. The Anglican Ascendancy meant that Ireland was governed indirectly from England. The Ascendancy angered the Catholics, limited their rights and made them pay taxes to the Protestant church. This led to dissatisfaction amongst Catholics culminating in the 1798 Rebellion. This caused the British

Revival of the Irish Culture

1977 words - 8 pages . He also believed that many of the views of the Gaelic League over glorified the real Irish culture (Castle 175). The success of the Gaelic League can still be seen today. The fact that St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated world wide is a key example. Unlike any other culture, the Irish around the world take pride and devotion to their national heritage. Although many argue that no other Irish cultural movements succeeded during this time

the views of david

1162 words - 5 pages The point of views of David These sculptures are based on the stories of King David of the Old Testament who entered battle with goliath on behalf of the Israelites. The first time David publicly displayed his courage was when, as an inexperienced shepherd boy armed with only a stick and three stones, he fought the nine-foot, bronze armored Philistine giant, Goliath of Gath. After skilled warriors had cowered in fear for days, David made a

Tg4 and the Irish speaking audience.

2552 words - 10 pages media content to obtain gratifications or results. Katz, Blumler and gurevitch (1974) argued against the views of the audience as typical, homogenous receivers of media information and suggested that the audience can and do actively participate in mass communication.When approaching the question of the Irish speaking audience of TG4. We will look at the four suggestions which McQuail et al. offer regarding audience needs and gratifications. These

The Avancement of the Cause of Irish Catholics and Nationalist Leaders in the Years 1801 - 1921

5760 words - 23 pages The Avancement of the Cause of Irish Catholics and Nationalist Leaders in the Years 1801 - 1921 In 1801, the Act of Union between Britain and Ireland saw the closing of Irish Parliament and was therefore routinely denounced by all manner of Irish nationalists. Much of Ireland was owned by absentee protestant ascendancy landlords, which caused a lot of bad feeling among the ordinary Irish people who worked on the land and

The Impossibility of Female Desire in Pygmalion and The Awakening

2062 words - 8 pages In “The Power of Discourse and the Subordination of the Feminine,” Luce Irigaray argues that, because society uses a patriarchal language that privileges male-gendered logic over female-gender emotion, there is no adequate language to represent female desire. She writes that “feminine pleasure has to remain inarticulate in language, in its own language, if it is not to threaten the underpinnings of logical operations” and, because of this, “what

The Glass Ceiling and the Lack of Female Executive Leadership

2355 words - 9 pages The existence of the glass ceiling reminds us of current issues in gender equality and female leadership, faced by the business community both in the United States and abroad. The Civil rights movement and incentives towards feminization of various aspects of public life resulted in official recognition of equal rights and opportunities for female professionals; however, in many cases such recognition takes purely formal shapes. In too many

The Ideal Female and the Oppression of Women

856 words - 3 pages The Ideal Female and the Oppression of Women By having an impossible ideal female look, society is beating us as women. We have no time to come up in world through politics, business, or any other power related structure because we’re spending all of our time trying to maintain, or achieve this beauty. The ideal woman is ever-changing. Different features and different characteristics are valued at different times and throughout different

Positive Arguments for Euthanasia: Touching on ethical views and the views of terminally ill patients

514 words - 2 pages positive role of euthanasia by explaining why it is that terminally ill patients consider euthanasia an option and what the ethical views concerning this issue are.The main reason for which people consider ending their life through euthanasia is because they are terminally ill. Terminally ill patients are those who have been diagnosed with a progressive degenerative disease for which there is not a known cure. These diseases include those such as

Similar Essays

The Irish Potato Famine And Emigration

2151 words - 9 pages The Irish Potato Famine and Emigration   During the Victorian era, England experienced tremendous growth in wealth and industry while Ireland struggled to survive. The reasons for Ireland's inability to take advantage of the Industrial Revolution are complex, and have been the subject of debate for more than a century. Many English viewed the Irish as stubborn farmers who refused to embrace the new technology. The Irish, however, believed

The Views Of Female Circumcision Essay

1417 words - 6 pages United States. Anyone found practicing FGM in the United States could face a sentence of five years in prison. FGM is viewed as abuse in the United States even if the female wishes to be circumcised. However, despite the United States obvious views of female circumcision as immoral; some societies view female circumcision as a part of their culture which is why it still occurs today. Female circumcision is viewed as a disgusting and barbaric act

The Development Of The Centre For Migration Studies Irish Emigration Database

5441 words - 22 pages The Development of the Centre for Migration Studies Irish Emigration Database In 1988 the Ulster American Folk Park (UAFP) near Omagh in Co Tyrone, Northern Ireland began to set up a computerised Irish Emigration Database (IED) in its library. This was a ground-breaking project at that time and was immediately beset by problems of all kinds, the details of which will be explained later. By 1997 the Folk Park’s library had expanded to become

The Process And Implications Of The Emigration Of Zimbabweans During

1511 words - 7 pages Fleeing Zimbabwe: The Process and implications of the emigration of Zimbabweans during Zimbabwe’s post-colonial crisis In the year 2000 Zimbabwe’s socio-economic standing crumbled due to the political decisions of the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) ruled by Zimbabwe’s president, Robert Mugabe. This article examines the crisis of Zimbabwe, their trials and tribulations during the period between 2000 and 2009. As the