Is Particulate Matter Associated With Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity/Mortality?

2050 words - 8 pages

Background

There is considerable literature indicating a link between particulate matter and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly individuals (Koken, et al, 2003). Particulate matter defined as any particle that measures less than or equal to ten micrometers (< 10µm PM10) or two point five micrometers(< 2.5µm PM2.5) that form from solid particles and liquid droplets. Most particulate matter forms due to vehicle admissions, industrials processes or wood burnings. Additionally, it has also been suggested that ultra fine particulate matter measuring less than or equal to 2.5 µm is considered more harmful to health than are larger particles in aerodynamic diameter because PM2.5 can penetrate deeper into the lung than PM10 (Park, et al, 2010).
Although ambient air pollution has decreased over the past several decades due to stringent air pollution control policies, there has been little evidence directly supporting the extent these control measures have improved public health (Tonne, et al, 2010). Investigative research has observed evidence to support the association of air pollution and particulate matter with increased cardiovascular events.
Further understanding of the mechanisms associated with these observations are necessary. It is important to further examine these associations with more specific end points that may suggest specific pathways (Zanobetti and Schwartz, 2005). The intent of this paper is to present an analytical evaluation of the data in the association of particulate matter and the incidence between cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Methodological Issues

Several reports have addressed the issue of weather and mortality; the factors of extreme temperatures are associated with increased daily mortality in numerous regions of the world (Koken, et al, 2003). Other existing biologic knowledge suggests that air pollution can also trigger electrophysiological disturbances either through an inflammatory mechanism or by the production of mediators that increase blood coagulation (Lee, et al, 2003, Park, et al, 2010, Schneider, et al, 2010). While the majority of the observational studies reported significant effects of cardiovascular events in association with particulate matter concentrations, the timing between a reduction in long-term exposure to air pollution and the possible reduction in the occurrence of cardiovascular events may not be sufficiently long (Tonne, et al, 2010).
More recently, studies have begun to assess the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular health over longer periods. The intent is to deliver more vigorous estimates of health outcomes with greater contrast in changes in air pollution (Tonne, et al, 2010).
While the majority of the studies performed used secondary data sources to compare adverse events with data from air-pollution monitoring stations, two of the studies performed recruited participants to examine results from exposure of particulate matter...

Find Another Essay On Is Particulate Matter Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity/Mortality?

Music Listening Motivation is Associated with Global Happiness in Canadian Late Adolescents

1663 words - 7 pages development (Mahoney), whereas unstructured leisure activities that involve passively indulging in media consumption (TV) can hinder adolescents’ well-being (Trainor). Music listening is among the most important and meaningful unstructured leisure activities for adolescent. Works Cited Morinville, Amélie, Dave Miranda, and Patrick Gaudreau. "Music Listening Motivation Is Associated With Global Happiness In Canadian Late Adolescents." Psychology Of Aesthetics, Creativity, And The Arts 7.4 (2013): PsycARTICLES. Web. 2 Apr. 2014.

How Ethical Leadership is Associated with Employee Output and Organizational Culture

2782 words - 11 pages ). Also, there has been an increase in consciousness about an individual’s rights, bring in the concern about an employees’ treatment within a jobsite. Issues of ethical and moral conduct of leadership are being scrutinized more than ever before (Veiga et al., 2004). This study it will analyze how ethical leadership inside the firm is associated with employee output and organizational culture. It will determine how the managers’ perceived

The automaton/statue/machine women is usually associated with something threatening (sexuality, modern technology) that is then exorcised through her

2818 words - 12 pages who is white like milk”, symbolising purity which has much to do with Christian views. Pygmalion’s angelical attitude towards his creation is perhaps a softer approach to the matter in order to reconcile with Christian views of life and sex. In addition, taking Adam and Eve as example, one known’s that Eve was created to fill the gap on Adam’s lonely life, therefore, in Pygmalion’s story; this urges for a companionship can be seen as something

Choose a product or service that is in some way associated with a taboo, something that it is considered socially embarrassing or shameful to ment

2035 words - 9 pages Advertising is all around us and we all know that advertising is the one-way paid marketing strategy intended to persuade audiences of readers to take action on products, services and ideas . It may seem simple to create an advertisement for any particular product but what about a product or service that is associated in some way with a taboo? The concept of taboo is described by some European explores of the South Seas as "something that

A review of The rs1800716 variant in CYP2D6 is associated with an increased double endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women on tamoxifen

908 words - 4 pages believe that more studies need to be conducted in order to really pinpoint the effects that mutant variants of the CYP450’s have on tamoxifen metabolism in the body. Works Cited 1. Dieudonne, A. S., Vergote, I., Neven, P., Christiaens, M. R., Timmerman, D., Hyonil, C. The rs1800716 variant in CYP2D6 is associated with an increased double endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women on tamoxifen. Annals of Oncology 2013; 25(1), 90-95. 2

Attention has been focused on the emergence of radical groups associated with Islam in Indonesia. Discuss if this is a new phenomenon in Indonesia

2384 words - 10 pages IntroductionIn recent years, there has been a lot of attention focussed on the emergence and activities of radical or extremists groups associated with Islam in Indonesia. But such radicalism is not a new phenomenon in Indonesia. Indonesia has gone through many changes beginning with the occupation of the Dutch, then the Japanese during World War 2 and later when Indonesia became an independent nation. These changes were attributed to the

Air Pollution in New Zealand

1847 words - 8 pages Research Council, 2012). This rise in particulate matter count can be mainly attributed to an increase in the human activity surrounding the use of personal and public transport especially in cities such as Auckland that have a large population and high car usage (Health Research Council, 2012). This essay will outline the health effects from air pollutants which include respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore it will discuss the

Effects of Smoking and Occupational Exposure

1750 words - 7 pages , tracheitis are potential respiratory problems associated with particulate matter (Copstead & Banasik). Individuals living in urban areas and factory workers are at the greatest risk.Anthracosis, also known as coal miner's lung or black lung, is the collection of coal particles with small amount of dilation airway in the early stages (Copstead & Banasik, 2000). The disease is progressive, with condensed areas of black fibrous tissue forming

air pollutin and health disparities

1577 words - 7 pages ), Nitrogen Dioxide no2), Sulfur dioxide so2) and particulate matter (PM). Separately, any of these pollutants are understood or assumed to cause adverse health effects. Increases in air pollution are associated with increases in heart attacks, deteriorating respiratory function and increased premature birth rates. Consequently, the Clean Air Act requires that The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets standards; these standards are to ensure

Social Health Research

1709 words - 7 pages knowledge of cardiovascular disease focussing on providing further insight into the significance of knowledge of cardiovascular disease and CVD prevalence. Prevalence and current trends The prevalence of cardio vascular disease has reached disturbing levels on a global scale (WHO, 2011). Although treatment and professional understanding of risk factors is advancing, CVD remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia, with 3.5

smoking and heart disease

927 words - 4 pages morbidity rates have compelling the need for public attention and global responses to cigarette smoking. More importantly, smoking is a preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The burden of cardiovascular disease has been the leading reason for the numerous studies and investigations with the purpose of improving interventions towards smoking and prevention of heart disease. Evidence from biological links, the environment, and age have

Similar Essays

Complexities Associated With The Parkinson’s Disease

712 words - 3 pages it’s a progressive disease, the symptoms just gets worse. Incurable, the chronic disease in most people is idiopathic, which meant that the specific cause was unknown. Small proportion of people associates the disease with genetic factors. Environmental factors: Increased symptoms of Parkinson’s are associated with certain environmental factors. This includes pesticide exposure, head injuries, rural environments, drinking well water, implicated

A Comparative White Matter Study With Parkinson’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease With Dementia And Alzheimer’s Disease

1361 words - 6 pages deterioration in white matter as compared to groups of healthy individuals control group (CON), Alzheimer’s disease group, and Parkinson’s disease group (Perea et al. 2013). It was known before through many scientific studies that white matter differences are actually associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Researches few decades ago studied white matter differences using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); which measures the orientation and direction

Problems Associated With Celiac Disease And Lactose Intolerance

1215 words - 5 pages cell. Inadequate production of digestive enzymes can have a negative impact on the breakdown of food into the various nutrients our bodies require. Problems associated with Celiac Disease and Lactose Intolerance “Celiac disease is an inflammatory disease of the upper small intestine caused by intolerance to gluten.” The small intestine has an inner lining of cells which contain villi (Marks). The substance, known as gluten damages the villi

The Inner Desires This Is An Essay About About Emotions And Sensations Associated With Drama

2702 words - 11 pages . I will be spending some time on zooming in on the Bacchae. During my research into the terminology of emotion, I discovered that there is a vast meaning given to emotion. Emotions are subjective experiences, or experienced from an individual point of view. Emotion is often associated with mood, temperament, personality, and disposition. As human beings we are aware of our emotions and also aware of the fact that we are aware. I continue by