Jack The Ripper Source Based Questions

2024 words - 8 pages

'Describe law and order in London in the late nineteenth century.'In 1829 Sir Robert Peel, Home Secretary, set up a police force called the Metropolitan police. But in 1800 there were two other police forces set up, the Bow Street Runners and the Thames River police. The Metropolitan police force over took them as the Metropolitan police force was popular. It is so popular it still exists today. They were designed to carry out the work of watchmen and special constables. They would patrol the dimly lit streets and tried to tackle crime. They unlike the watchmen and parish constables they could deal with riots. When they required help they were backed up by the army. The army used to wear red which was disliked by the people of Britain. The Metropolitan police force was made to wear blue uniform with a tail coat, a top hat and as few badges as possible. They were also armed with a truncheon. Watchmen also carried them. Constables however, were given cutlasses. The inspectors in the Metropolitan police began to carry revolvers from the 1840s and 1850s.During the nineteenth century, the early recruits were sacked because of heavy drinking problems which were another problem in Whitechapel. The second reason was the police force was unpopular because of the way they dealt with crowd control. Thirdly there was lack of changes to policing in other parts of the country. The Metropolitan police decided to use horses which ruled out the Bow Street Runners in 1839.In 1839 the Rural Constabulary Act allowed magistrates to choose if they wanted to set up a police force in each county, and by the mid 1850s, twenty-two counties had not done anything. In 1856 things were changed and the act made all counties create police forces. The act also made the government pay twenty-five percent to help pay for the costs of the new forces. As well as new forces, new inspectors were appointed to inspect each force. The force had to pass a test to see if they were working efficiently. Only if they passed, would the government pay. They all had different jobs even though they were all in the same force, because they were situated somewhere else.The first detectives were appointed by the Metropolitan police force in 1842. They wore plain clothes so they could not be identified. The Home Office was worried because they were dressed normally so they might become too friendly with criminals.Detective methods developed slowly but however, some forensic progress was made. In 1892 the Alphonse Bertillon method of identification was used. This involved measuring parts of the human body, assuming no two persons measurements were identical. The first photographer was appointed in 1901 as was the first fingerprinting method.'Why did the Whitechapel murders attract so much attention in 1888?'The crimes of Jack the Ripper are quite common with the Whitechapel murders that one is often mistaken for the other. The first murdered victim was Emma Smith and she was a local prostitute. She...

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