Japan's Lebensraum In The 18th Centruy

1118 words - 5 pages

The concept of lebensraum was most infamously enunciated in the 1920s by the Nazi party, but the practice of expansionism by force in the interwar period was by no means unique to Germany. Manifest Destiny has been referred to as “America’s lebensraum.” Fascist Italy used the notion of spazio vitale to justify expanding beyond its acknowledged borders. Concerned about the rapid pace of Western colonialism, isolated from the community of nations, staggered by economic calamity, desperate for resources and land, and caught in the swells of a rising corporatist, militarist, and nationalistic tide, the Empire of Japan engaged in its own kind of empire-building during the early 20th Century.
In 1853, American Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived on the shores of Japan with vessels and armaments the likes of which had never been seen in that corner of the world. After ordering some of the buildings in the harbor city of Uraga shelled as a demonstration of might, Perry presented the Japanese with a white flag and a list of demands. The ruling oligarchs of Japan were fearful of the colonialist impulses of the West and embarked upon an ambituous plan to modernize. Within a decade, the Meiji Restoration brought about sweeping changes to how Japan was structured governmentally, economically, socially, and militarily as a direct response to this encounter. The elite warrior class of the samurai was systematically dismantled in favor of a Western-style army.
Within a generation, Japan had become an economic force and the dominant power in the Pacific. Megacorporations called zaibatsu evolved and diversified their way to economic dominance, developing ties with the government and the military through their procurement activities. Meanwhile, disaffected former samurai attempted open rebellion and were summarily beaten back by Japan’s new conscripted army. Forced to find other employment, an estimated 1.9 million former samurai moved into jobs in politics, the bureaucracy, the military that had supplanted them, and local police forces. Some also joined clandestine paramilitary organizations. The seeds of militarism were now being sown into the political, military, and social consciousness of Japan.
While many aspects of traditional life persisted, The Meiji Restoration transformed the Empire of Japan into an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence and acquire resources. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan and Korea. Mainland Japan's population grew from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million in 1935, and the country adopted many Western political, judicial, and military institutions. After years of rapid modernization, the bubble of the bustling Japanese economy burst in the 1920s. The zaibatsu consolidated their power after the failure of many businesses and banks, and, now in command of Japanese finance, became even...

Find Another Essay On Japan's Lebensraum in the 18th Centruy

The Art of War in the 17th and 18th Centuries

1116 words - 4 pages The Art of War in the 17th and 18th Centuries The Art of War in the 17th and 18th Centuries is a history course book whose author's are United States Military Academy history instructors Lieutenant Colonel Dave Richard Palmer and Major Albert Sidney Britt III. The textbook gives an insight into the military tactics and the political reasons when they were brought about in the 17th and 18th centuries. The text was published in West Point

The Women’s Rights Movement in England: 18th Century and Beyond

1711 words - 7 pages The Women’s Rights Movement in England: 18th Century and Beyond The 18th century was a period of slow change for women’s rights in England. The Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution were coterminous at this point in history and brought the new thoughts about women’s rights to England in the late 1700s. In the 1700s women were not as concerned with voting as they were with divorce, adultery, and child custody rights. However, as the

Comparing Tories and the Whigs in 18th Century Politics

1307 words - 5 pages Comparing Tories and the Whigs in 18th Century Politics It is possible to speak of political parties in the period 1789 to 1830. Indeed political parties existed before 1789 but were further established at the beginning of this period when they became divided over certain issues; the monarchy, the war, taxation. The differences between the two parties became clearer as this period goes on. Political parties i.e

The Rights of Women in 18th Century America

864 words - 3 pages The Rights of Women in 18th Century America On July 4, 1804, a group of young men in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, offered a series of toasts to commemorate the nation's independence. Among their testimonials, they offered one to a cherished ideal:"[To] the rights of men, and the rights of women-. May the former never be infringed, nor the latter curtailed." The men acknowledged, even celebrated, an innovative and controversial idea: women

The Abolitionist Movement in 18th Century American Literature.

2055 words - 8 pages was a remnant of the persecution faced by the first generations of Puritans and Quakers that drove them to America in search of religious freedom. Perhaps it was the spiritual awakening that was prevalent during the middle of the 18th century. Perhaps it was the emerging national identity that was beginning to make its way through the colonies. Whatever the impetus, men like Sewall and Mather began to lay the foundation for what would eventually

To what ways did Japan's limited participation in the conflicts of the First World War benefit her economic development?

1078 words - 4 pages Mercantile shipping. Due to the war European shipping firms were forced to divert their mercantile vessels used for transporting all forms of imports and exports from Asian waters to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. This left the market open to Japan so the Japanese shipbuilding industry expanded to fill the gap. This enabled Japan to export even more cheaply to countries within Asia and China, as it reduced Japan's costs. In 1915 seventy-five per

The Relationship between the British Empire and the British Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century.

786 words - 3 pages During the 18th century, a great change occurred in Britain. Britain became an industrialized country and an empire. The Industrial Revolution can be regarded as a technological change in Britain when manufacturing began to rely on steam power rather than on animal labour or wind power. The overall economic shift towards large scale industry rather than small scale individual operations. The British Empire was expanding rapidly during the 18th

Perceptions of the 18th Century Novel in Ian Watt’s Book, The Rise of The Novel

870 words - 3 pages Perceptions of the 18th Century Novel in Ian Watt’s Book, The Rise of The Novel The eighteenth century novel was one that changed the way novels were written in many different ways. In reading Ian Watt's book, "The Rise of The Novel," quite a few things were brought to my attention concerning the eighteenth century novel; not only in how it was written and what went into it, but how readers perceived it. This essay will look into Ian Watt's

The challenges of the Dutch Republic in the 17th and 18th century.

720 words - 3 pages During the late 17th century and early into the 18th century, the security, unity, and prosperity of the Dutch Republic were challenged. The Dutch faced many problems, such as trade being hindered because of naval battles, the government and economy being torn apart from the economic problems, and the lack of money being made because of the cost of war and lack of trade profits.The Dutch were short of security during this time period because of

As Envisioned in the 18th Century: Narrowing the Alien Tort Statute to its Original Application

2128 words - 9 pages , Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, in 2004, the Court attempted to limit claims allowed under the ATS to those comparable to international law claims envisioned in the 18th century, when the ATS was originally enacted, such as those involving ambassadors, safe conduct, or piracy. Most recently, in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., the U.S. Supreme Court significantly constrained the reach of the ATS over activities that occur on foreign soil, setting a

Significance of the Attire of Men and Women in the 18th Century

1104 words - 4 pages Significance of the Attire of Men and Women in the 18th Century The attire of men and women in the eighteenth century cemented the roles they were supposed to play. The style of made dress belied his nature as somewhat more free from restrictions whereas the woman, bound by corsets and strict dress-codes found herself held back in clothing as in society. A sphere of influence, behavior and conduct was assigned to both sexes; each was

Similar Essays

The Role Of Trade In Japan's Economy

4171 words - 17 pages The purpose of this paper is to examine the proposition that has been put forth by many that Japan's post-war economic success has been due to a policy of export-led growth. It is important to understand that Japan is currently the second largest economy in the world. Even more, the country enjoyed decades of economic growth following World War II that was unmatched by all other countries around the world (Economic Overview, 2007). However, a

Peasants In The 18th Century Essay

880 words - 4 pages Peasants in the 18th Century When studying 18th century history one will often read about insightful intellects, powerful leaders, or even great military figures, but generally overlooked are the common people. These men, women, and children that make up the peasant society paid the taxes that supported militaries, upheld the land, and, in turn, contributed to history equally to the aforementioned figures. In the 18th century French

Conduct Books In The 18th Century

1336 words - 5 pages Conduct Books in the 18th Century Throughout history, conduct books have played an integral part in defining what cultures believed were acceptable and desirable behaviors, as well as representing the ideal person. In the introduction to The Ideology of Conduct, Nancy Armstrong and Leonard Tennenhouse attempt to show how literature and conduct books have been important in relaying these messages and shaping a history of sexuality through the

The Order Of The Illuminati In The 18th Century

2366 words - 9 pages The Order of the Illuminati in the 18th Century The Order of the Illuminati plays apart in everyday life. As it is known for its conspiracies against the government, there are other known leverages that this secret society has. For example, one could be watching entertainment on celebrities such as: Beyonce, Celine Dion, Tupac, Led Zeppelin, Slayer, Pantera, Sublime, &c. As the cameras aim in their direction, someone begins to notice