This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Jean Paul Sartre The Existentialist, Sigmund Freud The Determinist, And Victor Frankenstein

2692 words - 11 pages

Human nature has been determined by many as many different things. Some believe that humans have a preexisting "essence" that account for their actions. However, an existentialist or a determinist would disagree on such a philosophy. Jean-Paul Sartre is a famous French existentialist. Not only was he an existentialist, but an atheist as well. He asserted that God does not exist, and that the only human condition is that of free choice. Sigmund Freud revolutionized unconscious drives in the 20th century and was a determinist. He believed that humans operate under subjectivity also, but with many behaviors resulting from unconscious drives. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein tested many theories on human nature. Sartre would consider some decisions made by the character Victor Frankenstein as acts of bad faith, but attribute the end result to authenticity; Sigmund Freud would attribute much of Victor Frankenstein's behavior to repressed sexual desires.Existentialists have three fundamental arguments that define them as such. One being that, in relation to other philosophies, human nature as defined in terms of universality escapes the importance of individualism and the importance of life's limitless situations. The second argument confronts the metaphysical realm of humanity. Existentialists do not place focus on "objective truth", but believe that it is subjectivity that defines human existence. Last, but most certainly not the least, the freedom in which we humans are born with determines our actions, attitudes, purposes, and values. (Haberman, Stevenson, 1998) Existentialism is a dogma that proclaims "every truth and every action implies a human setting and a human subjectivity". (Sartre, Handout, pg. 254) Jean-Paul Sartre is the most famous French existentialist (1905-1980). A key assertion in his writings centers on his rejection of the existence of God. To Sartre, the concept of God (and all that he/she stands for, aka: the commandments) is contradictory. He argues that believers of such a God would assume that without God, there would be no rules for which humans to rely upon. Nevertheless, without such rules for humans to abide by, there would be no basis for criticism of one's actions. (Haberman, Stevenson, 1998) Sartre's writings repeatedly imply these values and "rules" are " ourselves, in our human freedom to choose, and that there can be no external or objective justification for the values, actions and way of life that anyone chooses to adopt" (Haberman, David and Stevenson, Leslie, 1998, pg. 174 ) and that ".....nothing changes if God does not exist." (Sartre, Handout, pg. 259) The assumption here is that without God, we are still faced with ethic and moral dilemmas for which we must determine courses of action. In this way, man is condemned in life because he/she did not make the decision to live, but must do so nevertheless without the help of others to make decisions. Therefore, there is nowhere to place blame on decisions...

Find Another Essay On Jean-Paul Sartre the Existentialist, Sigmund Freud the Determinist, and Victor Frankenstein

Jean-Paul Sartre: On the Other Side of Despair

3067 words - 12 pages , he was critical of both the USSR and the United States; later on, he did support Soviet positions but still was frequently critical of Soviet policies ("Jean-Paul Sartre"). In the 1950s and 1960s, Sartre devoted his energies to world affairs, participating in political demonstrations and espousing Marxist solutions to social problems (Marowski and Matuz 371). His fusing of his own existentialist beliefs with Marxist tenets attempted to

Jean-Paul Sartre - Problems with the Notion of Bad Faith

4486 words - 18 pages Jean-Paul Sartre - Problems with the Notion of Bad Faith In Being and Nothingness, Jean-Paul Sartre presents the notion of "bad faith." Sartre is a source of some controversy, when considering this concept the following questions arise. "Of what philosophical value is this notion? Why should I attend to what one commentator rightly labels Sartre's 'Teutonically metaphysical prose

Jean Paul Sartre : French Activist

1860 words - 8 pages hope to those but only on the surface. In France specifically, there were homeless people all over because of economic weakness, little military power because of Hitler’s occupation of France, and most importantly the corrupted psychology of the people. Jean Paul Sartre became part of the miserable France after World War Two. Sartre fit right into the era of doubt and dismay. He was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter

No Exit: Jean-Paul Sartre

585 words - 2 pages In the play, No Exit, written by Jean-Paul Sartre, three souls are united in the same room in hell. Garcin, Inez, and Estelle are placed into this unexpected situation with each other. They are faced with memories of their sins and the hell that is created is that they have each other to remind if their sins that they committed. In other words, their hell is one another. In this play, which takes place in a plain room furnished in Second Empire

Nasea by Jean Paul Sartre

741 words - 3 pages In Jean Paul Sartre’s 1938 novel, Nausea, the protagonist, Antoine Roquentin questions the existence and purpose of objects and himself. He ultimately discovers the answer to be nothingness for one creates their own meanings and connections to the past and reality. Roquentin is a victim of self-deception and through the narrative point of view and word choice conveyed, it is clear that he lies to himself that he must exist in the present to

Hsün Tzu and Jean-Paul Sartre Comparison of two Philosophers

1963 words - 8 pages Jean Paul Sartre was a Western French philosopher and wrote some of his major works during World War II. His multiple styles of writing were in the forms of academic essays to novels and many others. He self-described as an atheistic existentialist who believes, “existence precedes essence, or that subjectivity must be the starting point” (143) that is, that man must make subjective choices in his life that are acceptable not only to himself

Jean Paul Sartre´s Existential Philosophy

1215 words - 5 pages Jean Paul Sartre's Existential philosophy posits that is in man, and in man alone, that existence precedes essence. Simply put, Sartre means that man is first, and only subsequently to his “isness” does he become this or that. The implication in Sartre's philosophy is that man must create his own essence: it is in being thrown into the world through consciounsess intent, loving, struggling, experiencing and being in the world that man is

Jean Paul Sartre's Existentialist Belief, We Are Completely Free

1512 words - 7 pages Jean Paul Sartre is a philosopher that supports the philosophy of existentialism. Existentialism is a twentieth century philosophy that denies any crucial human nature and embraces that each of us produces our own essence through our free actions. Existentialists like Sartre believe there isn’t a God that determines people’s nature. So, existentialists believe that humans have no purpose or nature except the ones that they create for themselves

The Career and Discoveries of Sigmund Freud

746 words - 3 pages cure" ( Later he went to Paris to study under Jean Martin-Charcot a well known neurologist in Europe at the time ( She was doing studies on hysteria and hypnosis and this influenced him to go into pyschopathology. Sigmund Freud is the orginator of psycoanalysis which was Freud's way of thinking that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts ( The overall aim of

The Writings of Sigmund Freud

3068 words - 12 pages Einstein and Sigmund Freud - ‘Why War?’ [1933], in The Penguin Freud Library Volume 12: Civilisation, Society and Religion [1991] David Stafford-Clark - What Freud Really Said [1965] Robert Bocock - Sigmund Freud [2002] Robert Bocock - Freud and Modern Society [1976] Christopher Badcock - Essential Freud [1992] J.N. Isbister - Freud: An Introduction to his Life and Work [1985] Paul Roazen - Freud: Political

The Contributions of Sigmund Freud

1589 words - 6 pages The founder of Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was a physiologist, and medical doctor and a psychologist. During the span of his research in psychotherapy he was criticized by many who claimed his research was not science. Although it has been decades and Freud’s work has filled many of today’s psychology textbooks, there are contemporary critics who still question the legitimacy of Freud’s scientific work. Sigmund Freud’s achievements unlocked

Similar Essays

The Life Of Jean Paul Sartre Essay

1065 words - 4 pages opposed the Vietnam War and participated in tribunal intended to expose U.S. war crimes in 1967. (Channel) In conclusion, the life of Jean-Paul Sartre’s was one many great achievements. He was able to witness many of his works reach great success as well as winning a Nobel Peace Prize. His writings laid out the groundwork for future existentialist to critique or to accept and become inspired by. Sartre was not only a great French philosopher

Jean Paul Sartre Essay

4921 words - 20 pages general public. One of the reasons both for its popularity and for his discomfort is the clarity with which it exhibits the major tenets of existentialist thought while revealing Sartre's attempt to broaden its social application in response to his Communist and Catholic critics. In other words, it offers us a glimpse of Sartre's thought "on the wing."Sartre's Early YearsJune 21, 1905 was the day when Jean-Paul-Charles-Aymard Sartre was born on 13

Jean Paul Sartre Essay

855 words - 3 pages Jean Paul Sartre was someone who had a massive influence on people, yet he did not seem to have the credentials to support it. It seems that he was in the right place at the right time, and this gave him the momentum, which he needed to keep his place in society with massive influence. Sartre's most successful part of life was his middle ages, and even then, he wrote quantity without quality, making large sums of money from it somehow, and not

Biographie Jean Paul Sartre Essay

1358 words - 5 pages La notion de liberté a évolué à travers le temps et a été étudiée par différents philosophes. Elle est de façon incontestable une valeur universelle, mais n'est toutefois pas un concept univoque. Dans ce texte, la liberté selon Sartre sera étudiée. La biographie de Jean-Paul Sartre sera d'abord abordée suivie d'une présentation de la libert