Dyslexia is a congenital disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty learning to decode and spell words in relation to one’s verbal intelligence, motivation, and educational opportunities (Gray E. S, 2008). People have many misconceptions regarding dyslexia which includes visual impairment, low IQ, dyslexia is curable, and this learning disability affects males more often than females. Indicators of dyslexia change over time since it is a process of developmental. It is difficult to identify children with dyslexia; however it becomes more prominent as they progress in school. Experts agree that dyslexia is a learning disability that affects language processing and that it does not occur because of low intelligence, lack of motivation, poor instruction, vision, or hearing problems, cultural disadvantages, or other extrinsic. Dyslexia is neurobiological in origin (Altieri J. L, 2008).
Identifying children with dyslexia is often very difficult in the early stages before the third grade. Often books children read in the first grade contain repetitive words. Much of the reading students do is supported by memory and illustrations, not decoding. Therefore, students with dyslexia can be concealed by repetitive readings and predictable text (Gary E. S, 2008). Even though it is difficult it is not impossible. In order to provide students with early interventions the best indicator to assess students during the early stage would be spelling.
Spelling requires students to decode, blend, and segment the words, and generate specific letter representation of the phonemes. During the early stage of learning students are exposed to writing known as “play” write. Using spelling in their writing teachers will see if students are able to demonstrate their ability to match the phonemes to the letters of the alphabets. If students are not able to demonstrate their ability to blend and segment phonemes they are considered to show a sign of weakness in their phonological ability.
As students begin to develop and progress in school it becomes easier in identifying students with dyslexia by the third grade. Students begin to show signs of signs of distress when they are encountered with words they do not know. Reading becomes much difficult for students since words are not repetitive in the text, as well as words that are unfamiliar to the students, the reading does not contain high frequency words, and pictures. Students begin to realize memorization of words is not enough for them to read as they advance into the next grade. Students will experiences frustration while reading, guessing unfamiliar words based on the initial consonant. Since illustrations are often not included in intermediate books, students will become frustrated because they are not able to refer to illustrations as a guide in assisting them in the comprehension of the text.
As reading teachers, we must be aware of these tendencies because students with dyslexia can “hide” behind their...