Middle Age Europe evolved numerous times passing through multiple changes over the thousand year period beginning at approximately 500 C.E. Among the significant events experienced by Middle Age Europe are: spread of Christianity through the Roman Empire, wars within the Sasanid Empire, the rise of Islam, the fractioning of different Islamic sects after the death of Prophet Muhammad and the wars between Muslims against each other, and the establishment of guilds to fulfill an economical agenda.
As the official religion of many rulers, the spread of Christianity actually contributed to the spread of Islam after some Christians heard the news of the final prophet upon whose appearance they were awaiting. Rosenwein mentions that "Constantine's rule marks the beginning of what historians call 'Late Antiquity,' a period transformed by the culture and religion of the provinces." (SMHA 25). He was responsible for adopting Christianity as an official religion for his empire; however, Constantine’s rule was limited as the distribution of armed forces across the vast land ruled by the Romans would become one of the main reasons leading to the transformation of the Roman world. This led to their vulnerability and the eventual invasion of Barbarians and Persians into the Roman lands. After this "…crisis of the third century…" it was much more difficult to find recruits to deal with the situation, which was a result of a dwindling birthrate and a smallpox and measles epidemic that swept the country. (SMHA 24).
As somewhat of a prelude to the rise of Islam as an influential factor in the evolving of the Middle Age European nation, “…both the Sasanid and Byzantine troops and revenues were exhausted.” (SMHA 63). The weakening of these two empires through constant war with each other resulted in a vulnerable target for the yet to come Islamic conquests. The timing of their fall from power led to the perfect opportunity for the Muslims’ army to introduce themselves into bordering countries. Because of Prophet Muhammad’s teachings, this army would eventually reach lands as far as Spain influencing many of Europe’s inhabitants through religious teachings. (SMHA 71).
Muhammad, known as “As-saadiq Al-Amin”, which means “the truthful trustworthy”, before he received revelation, lived during a time of widespread idolatry. He was trusted by his tribe and had a very good reputation. He claimed to receive revelation from God through the archangel Gabriel, after which he called people to worship God, alone, who does not resemble created things in any way, and to believe in all the prophets including him. (SMHA 72). He performed what are still believed to be many miracles to prove his claim; among them is the Quran.
Al-Qur’an served as a challenge to those who rejected its truthfulness as mentioned in the twenty third verse of the book’s second chapter. Despite the Arabs’ mastery of the Arabic language, they could not match its eloquence which was believed to be a miracle...