TITLE : Cross-Cultural Competence In International Business: Toward A Definition And A Model by James P. Johnson, Tomasz Lenartowicz and Salvador Apud
PREPARED BY : Theva Amirtha d/o Ramasamy (220705)
In this journal, the writers examined the concept of cross culture and how it has been addressed in the international business literature. Although international business failure has been ascribed to the low levels of cross culture of individual managers, especially of US based managers, they found that cross culture in an International Business context is ill defined, especially when compared with other areas of the social sciences. These International ...view middle of the document...
It was done in two stages. First they searched ten top business journals over a 10-year period (1995-2004) for articles where national culture was either the main topic or a variable explaining some business phenomenon. As the ten journal search focusing on International Business yielded limited results, they then conducted a wider database search, extending the timeframe to 1976, but few additional results were returned. Next category is the cultural competence and workplace diversity. The term ‘cultural competence’ is widely used in the USA in the fields of health care, medicine, psychology and education in reference to the interactions of minorities with governmental agencies and systems. The third category is competence in intercultural communications. Their review of the literature revealed that the field of intercultural communications offers an overlapping set of definitions with a set of shared elements.
b) Integration with the existing literature
The writers linked their framework to the existing body of International Business literature. In addition to the inventory of cultural competencies, they integrated the cross cultural framework with four topics which are cultural intelligence, behavioural learning and cross-cultural training, the effect of the country environment on a global firm’s success and the firm’s related blunders in international business.
a) Gets clear definition of cross-cultural competence in international business
From the research they did based on the literature review, they explained that cultural competence requires or implies three factors, which are attitude, skills and knowledge. They also find out what do the definitions by the scholars shows the common characteristics. The writers view cross-culture in terms of performance, or outcomes that is, in terms of an individual’s proficiency in responding to a different cultural context and cues by drawing appropriately upon the inventory of knowledge, skills and attributes and behaving accordingly. They proposed the following definition of cultural competence for the International Business field :
Cross-cultural competence in international business is an individual’s effectiveness in drawing upon a set of knowledge, skills, and personal attributes in order to work successfully with people from different national cultural backgrounds at home or abroad.
b) Suggestions of ways on developing a model of cultural competence in International Business
There are three...