1. Early life
Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 B.C. Though he was a descendent of the oldest patrician family, Julius Caesar grew up in a very poor district of Rome called Subura. As a child, he studied martial arts, history, and law (“Julius Caesar”). At the age of seventeen, Julius married Cornelia, the daughter of Luciussulla, who was a dictator of Rome. Because Luciussulla did not approve of the marriage, he tried to force the two to divorce, but they both refused. Julius Caesar studied philosophy and oratory in Greece. Soon after returning to Rome, Cornelia became pregnant. Named after her father, the baby’s name was Julia. Cornelia died in 68 B.C., leaving Caesar to care for their daughter (Gruen,12).
Still fairly young, Caesar became interested in public affairs, and tried to gain favor of the Roman people. In 65 B.C., Caesar was elected to office in the position of aedile. By setting up a time and place for public games, Caesar received popularity. They truly loved him. Caesar continued to spend more and more money for recreational purposes. Slowly, he began to fall into debt (Gruen,12). Luckily, in 62 B.C., Caesar was elected praetor, which was a very high ranking political position (“Julius Caesar”;Gruen,12).
Unfortunately for Caesar, many aristocratic people tried to disgrace or embarrass him. They revolted against him, but his political career was stable and was not harmed (Gruen,12). Thinking in his best interest, Julius Caesar allied himself with Gnaeus Pompey. First Triumvirate seemed to hold great, high power. Being a great military leader and idol to many, Pompey helped Caesar be elected as consul in 59 B.C. Though they used violence and wrong bribery, this was a major victory for the two. Pompey also greatly benefited from this alliance. When Caesar became consul, he was able to grant Pompey land for his troops. The Senate had originally refused to give Pompey this land, but because of Caesar they changed their minds (Combee,95). Also, in 59 B.C., Pompey married Caesar’s daughter, Julia (Gruen,13).
Caesar now desired to be governor of Gaul for a five-year term. Also a great general, Caesar spent years conquering Gaul. He became a loyal friend to many of the people there. While conquering, Caesar became very powerful and very popular. His many conquests continued and his army grew stronger and stronger (Combee,95). Fortunately, Caesar’s campaigns in Gaul brought great wealth and popularity to Rome. They also brought great popularity to him (“Julius Caesar”). To many people, Caesar was a hero (Gruen,13).
After his second term as governor in Gaul, the hero returned to Rome. Growing very jealous of Caesar, Pompey joined his enemies. The Senate persistently tried to disband Caesar’s powerful army. He refused to do this, which caused major friction with the Senate (Combee,95). Then, on January 10, 49 B.C., Caesar crossed the Rubicon River with his army. This...