How Many Arguments Does Berkel Essay

1911 words - 8 pages

How many arguments does Berkeley offer for the existence of God When first encountered with this question, the answer seems almost simple and obvious: one, possibly two. All one would have to do is read Berkeley and count exactly how many arguments he gives for the existence of God. However, it seems that after reading the text and reading two of the responses to the text and a response to one of the responses, it really is not that simple at all. Instead it became horribly complicated with questions of the importance and definitions of certain words that Berkeley uses. In my essay, I am going to present Berkeley's supposed arguments for the existence of God followed by three different philosopher's opinions of what he actually meant in using these arguments and what the purpose of each argument was. The philosopher's names are Jonathan Bennett, E.J. Furlong, and Jonathan Dancy. The arguments that supposedly exist in Berkeley's Principles and Dialogues are not presented in argument form, but I will use instead, Bennett's argumentative form of the arguments. By using his form, I do not concede that Bennett is correct in his own opinions, but that he has laid out a clear path to the arguments that Berkeley has given us. The arguments' names for the remainder of the essay will be the Continuity argument and the Independence argument (Bennett calls this argument the passivity argument, but for purely aesthetic reasons alone, I prefer to call it the independence argument). First of all, the continuity argument may be found, albeit in controversy, in §48 presented by Berkeley: For though we hold indeed the objects of sense to be nothing else but ideas which cannot exist unperceived; yet we may not hence conclude they have no existence except only while they are perceived by us, since there may be some other spirit that perceives them, though we do not...It does not follow from the foregoing principles, that bodies are annihilated and created every moment, or exist not at all during the intervals between our perception of them.The argument form of this statement, according to Bennett would then go as follows: (a) Objects are collections of ideas, and therefore cannot exist when not perceived by some spirit; (b) No idea, and therefore no collection of ideas, can exist not perceived by some spirit; (c) Objects do sometimes exist when not perceived by any human spirit; Therefore (d) There must be one or more non human spirits which perceive objects when no human spirits perceives them.What Berkeley is supposedly asking when presenting the first premise is if a mind is not perceiving of an idea, then how can that idea be called one that is existing? The second premise is simply a statement that material items as we think we know them, are just collections of ideas themselves, so they, too, fall victim to the need of perception to subsist. Since it is 'obvious' that objects do sometimes exist without human perception, the conclusion that there is...

Find Another Essay On How many arguments does berkel

Clearly deconstruct and summarise the arguments made within a given academic text,

981 words - 4 pages ). Schneider and Butcher expand upon this irrelevance of doping by mentioning the precautionary principle; that if doping does not enhance an athlete's skill and contains an unnecessary risk - no matter how small - what is the point. They also introduce the coercive effect of doping that "if athletes believe that a good number of their opponents dope, they also will feel compelled to dope in order to keep up" (Schneider and Butcher, 2000, 197

Does God Exist? Essay

1140 words - 5 pages Proof Of The Exsistence of God Either God exists or He doesn't. There is no middle ground. Any attempt to remain neutral in relation to God's existence is automatically synonymous with unbelief. The question for God's existence is really important. Does God exist? Theology, cosmological, teleological and ontological arguments are all have ways to prove the existence of God. With all of these great arguments how can one deny that there is a God

A Rhetorical Analysis

817 words - 4 pages poor, and give some pleasure to the rich. he adopts a serious tone in order to convince the people of 1729 to eat babies. The issue is that there are too many infants in the country and they are useless to the community. the context is that no one was taking action and just going about their lives waiting for someone to do something but no one would. Swift is making the arguments, he went to Oxford university, no biases seem

Theory of Knowledge : Logic

1311 words - 5 pages good argument can be defined in many different ways but for the sake of this essay, a good argument is one that is valid and well supported with consistency, meaning it does not contradict itself. Lastly, rationalization is a way someone justifies their actions.A rational argument is an argument that follows the basic rules of logic and reason. For example, if I say "all men are mortal, Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal" the basics

Forensic, Deliberative, and Ceremonial Arguments

1222 words - 5 pages , present, and future can be presented in any form. Articles of forensic argument, for example, deliberate the past and what happened leading to questions as to why this happened, or what should have been. Articles regarding the present hold many problems people will debate on and set ways for the future. Arguments of how to bring about a worthier and more flourishing future will be disputed in deliberative arguments. Argumentation is everywhere.

Challenge End to End Arguments

810 words - 4 pages During the initial years of its development, internet had a set of design principles that made it what it is. One such crucial design principle that defined the distinctive nature of how the internet shaped out is the end to end arguments. These principles claim that application level functions preferably should be implemented at the application level itself (i.e., at the end points of a transaction) and not at the lower levels (i.e., the core

The Debated and Hated SUV

2361 words - 9 pages . There have been many arguments made for and against SUV’s. Anti-SUV groups have made good points by closely entwining logos and pathos arguments. Often anti-SUV arguments use crash statistics and environmental research to make there clams. While their use of statistics is good, anti-SUV arguments can err on the side of being so emotional they create a pathos fallacy. SUV advocates make arguments also based on statistics, but they rely more

Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life: No Correct Answer

1783 words - 7 pages wrong, but I feel that the pro-choice side presents their arguments in a better manner. The pro-choice gives arguments such as legal abortion eliminates many of the illegal abortions that used to take place, where pro-life presents arguments like, abortion is murder. They don’t give examples of how abortion is harming the world, other than reasons of value. They also present less arguments than the pro-choice groups do. Abortion is an issue that lacks objectivity and is more of a decision of ethics. There is no right or wrong answer.

Capital Punishment

557 words - 2 pages Capital PunishmentCapital Punishment is whereby a government punishes an offender by putting them todeath for a certain crime. Throughout history many arguments have been raised onwhether or not to abolish capital punishment. Some believe that capital punishmentshould be abolished for various reasons such as, cruelty and discrimination. They alsobelieve that it does not deter crime. However, these arguments either haven't been provenor aren't

An Effective Argumentative Style vs. A Poor Argumentative Style

988 words - 4 pages When you first think about the movie Fight Club, great argumentative skills is not something that comes to mind as an essential part of the characters. After more thought and a deeper analysis of this movie though, Tyler Durden shown through as a very persuasive and effective arguer. He uses many different tactics and ideas to successfully win his arguments, even though technically, it’s just Edward Norton arguing with himself.Part of what

Review of “Electoral Reform Proposal Failures in Canada”

960 words - 4 pages destroy your policy window. This is how Leduc emphasizes why the Law Commission of Canada’s proposal had failed because the Liberal administration was no longer in power. Finally, the reader will admire the brief analysis of a few provinces that reiterates his original argument of lessons learned in Canada. Although Leduc provided information from the 90’s and early 2000’s, he does not mention much from the other decades. Another issue was

Similar Essays

Question: Many Texts Explore Ways In Which Identity Is Threatened. Explain How At Least One Text You Have Studied Does So

961 words - 4 pages is malleable and easily influenced by events and outside circumstances. While Whitechapel is the main character, his identity is also constructed by the thoughts and actions of the other characters. Mr. Whitechapel’s thoughts on Whitechapel show his integrity and loyalty, and how valuable he is to the plantation. When Mr. Whitechapel visits the clubhouse with the other plantation owners, many of them mention Whitechapel and how sought after he

How Does Lewis Explain The Dull Monotony Or "Universal Similarity" Reigning In American Life? How Many Cultures Does America Have? What Is The Source Of American Culture?

695 words - 3 pages provide for their own sustenance.Lewis, like Marx, holds a materialist view of culture. In examining how thoughts occur in relation to action, materialism asserts that thoughts erupt from one's relationship to the physical world. American culture stems from the physical relationships between people and their surroundings. The monotony and dullness of the lives of the town folk stem from the monotony and dullness of their physical surroundings

Causes Of Poverty And Effects On Life Opportunities

1980 words - 8 pages very unlikely to happen in countries where poverty is very low. Therefore, it is time to look at what are some of the solutions and impediments, regarding poverty, on a personal, local and national scale. Most common solutions which are spread throughout many different sites and articles is extensive research done into the issue of poverty to determine how bad the issue is and to what extent do people need to focus on improving it (Rank, 2001). The

Latin American Expectations Essay

999 words - 4 pages According to Rotheram-Borus and Phinney (1990), Latin American (LA) children present more group orientation and show more reliance on authority figures concerning problem solving. This information can correlate to how LA parents expect their children to rely on their authority and knowledge concerning problem solving and general issues in development (Rotheram-Borus & Phinney). Additionally, LA family expectations depend heavily on whether or