How Psychology Helps Us Understand the Concept of Language and Intelligence as Related to Human Beings
Psychology, the study of behaviour and mental processes concerns itself with the reasons organisms do what they do and how they behave in a particular way, For example why acquired skills are not lost when learnt ; Why do children rebel against parents and, why humans speak, love and fight each other. These examples of learning and behaviour are directly related to intelligence and language in human beings.
It is said that language, foresight, musical skills and other hallmarks of intelligence are connected through an underlying facility that enhances rapid movements. To most observers, the essence of Intelligence is cleverness, a versatility in solving novel problems. Jean Piaget, development psychologist, emphasized that Intelligence was the sophisticated groping that we do, when not knowing what to do.
Neurobiologist Horace Barlow, framed the issue, by declaring that intelligence is all about making a guess that discovers some new underlying order. This neatly covers a lot of ground like finding a solution to a problem, or the logic of an argument, creating a witty reply or by guessing what's likely to happen next.
Maybe we will never agree on a universal definition of Intelligence, because it is an open ended word like consciousness and these concern the high end of our mental life. To help us understand this, Psychologists such as Francis Galton (1822-1911), Alfred Binet (1857-1911), Theodore Simon (1873) and Wechler et al, developed a series of tests to determine strengths and weaknesses as well as an overall measure of I.Q.
Francis Galton was a pioneer in Intelligence testing . He proposed that people with high sensory and other abilities, were better adapted for survival. He therefore saw them as more intelligent then those of average abilities.
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon together developed a test called the ( Simon Binet Test ), to assess the ability of children's performance at school. They developed a table used to compare the mental age of a child to the actual age to produce the concept of I.Q. The conclusion was that a particular intelligent person often seem quick and capable of juggling many ideas at once.
Not to be outdone, Wechler developed intelligence scales for both adults and children (WAIS & WISC). The scales are in two parts VERBAL AND PERFORMANCE, giving a clear picture of the person's IQ; by identifying their strength and weaknesses in specific areas .The information can be used in planning individualized instruction programs.
To help us understand the nature side of intelligence versus the nurture side Psychologists Bouchard McGue (1981), and Harrell et al(1955) provided us with correlations and comparisons . In the case of Bouchard and McGue the correlations thus provided were:
Identical twins reared apart .72
Identical twins reared together .86 compared to