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What An Electro Magnet Is And How It Works

1015 words - 4 pages

Do you ever wonder what an electro magnet is or how it works? Well it is fairly simple being the genius that you are. An electro magnet is simple to create and is even more fun to play with. The definition of an electro magnet is a temporary magnet that creates a small electrical field when electricity flows through it. I made mine using some copper wire, a 9v, and a nail. The nail is the core but you can use any core you choose to. Now heres some background information for you.If you look at a battery it has two sides. One terminal is marked positive and the other is negative. In an AA, C or D cell (normal flashlight batteries), the ends of the battery are the terminals. In a large car battery, there are two heavy lead posts that are the terminals. If you connect a wire between the negative and positive terminals, the electrons will flow from the negative to the positive terminal as fast as they can. You usually connect something to the battery using a wire. Inside the battery itself, a chemical reaction produces the electrons. Electrons flow from the battery into a wire, and must travel from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction to take place. Once you connect a wire, the reaction starts. The first battery was created by Alessandro Volta in 1800. To create his battery, he made a stack by alternating layers of zinc, blotting paper soaked in salt water and silver. Like this: This arrangement was known as a "voltaic pile." In the 1800s, before the invention of the electrical the Daniell cell or the "gravity cell" because gravity keeps the two sulfates separated, and a "wet cell. The Daniell cell is a wet cell consisting of copper and zinc plates and copper and zinc sulphates. sulfate solution is poured over the plate to half-fill the jar. Then a zinc plate is hung in the jar as shown and a zinc sulfate solution poured very carefully into the jar. Copper sulfate is denser than zinc sulfate, so the zinc sulfate "floats" on top of the copper sulfate. The actual metals and electrolytes used control the voltage of the battery -- each different reaction has a characteristic voltage. For example, here's what happens in one cell of a car's lead-acid battery: The cell has one plate made of lead and another plate made of lead dioxide, with a strong sulfuric acid electrolyte that the plates are immersed in. Lead combines with SO4 to create PbSO4 plus one electron. Lead dioxide, hydrogen ions and SO4 ions, plus electrons from the lead plate, create PbSO4 and water on the lead dioxide plate. As the battery discharges, both plates build up PbSO4 (lead sulfate), and water builds up in the acid. The characteristic voltage is about 2 volts per cell, so by combining six cells you get a 12-volt battery. A lead-acid battery has a nice feature -- the reaction is completely reversible. If you apply current to the...

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