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What Makes Up The Cardiovascular System, And Describe The Components.How The Cardiovascular System Works And The Effect Of Exercise On The Cardiovascualr System

2381 words - 10 pages

Cardiovascular SystemCardio means the heart and vascular means the network of capillaries, arteries and veins.The vital role of the cardiovascular system in to maintain homeostasis, this depends on the continuous and controlled movement of blood through the capillaries that fill every tissue and reach every cell in the body.The heart is a hollow pear-shaped muscular organ that is situated between the lungs, and is in the middle of the chest. The heart pumps blood through the body, which supplies the cells with oxygen and nutrients, and removes carbon dioxide and waste products such as lactic acid and urea. It is attached to the breastbone by special connective tissues called ligaments.The heart has four chambers, a small upper chamber, which is called the atrium, and a large lower chamber called the ventricle, it has one of these on each side. The septum divides the heart in to its two separate pumps, the left and the right. The average heart's muscle, called cardiac muscle, contracts and relaxes about 70 to 80 times per minute. The heart also contains valves on either side, it contains an Aortic valve that stops the backflow of blood from the aorta into the ventricles, the Bicuspid valve which has two cusps, this also stops backflow of blood from the ventricle to the atria, as the left ventricle contracts the bicuspid valve stops blood going backwards, Tricuspid valve, has three cusps and this also stops the backflow of blood to the atria when the right ventricle contracts, and finally the Pulmonary valve which stops blood back flowing through the ventricle from the pulmonary artery.Deoxygenated blood enters the right atria from the superior and inferior vena cavae. The right atrium then fills with blood, the blood passes through a one-way valve that takes the blood into the right ventricle. The right ventricle then begins to contract and pushes this blood through pulmonary artery. The deoxygenated blood travels through this artery to the lungs where it becomes oxygenated. This blood then travels back to the heart via the pulmonary vein this is pulmonary circulation. The left atria fills up with this blood, it then passes through the one-way valve and enters the left ventricle, this is systemic circulation. The left ventricle also contracts and pushes the blood out into the aorta. From the aorta it travels through the arteries, through the arterioles, through the capillaries, through the venules, through the veins and into the superior and inferior vena cavae. This blood has now done a full circle of the body, and has come back to the heart as oxygenated blood, the circulation of the body then begins again.The heart actually has two separate pumps within it not just one, the right side of the heart is different to the left side of the heart, the right side is the pulmonary circulation and the left side is systematic circulation.Pulmonary circulation is where the blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart again. The...

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