EARTHQUAKE PROBLEM: Do's and Don'ts for Protection
Sponsored by Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, New Delhi and
Prepared by Department of Earthquake Engineering,
University of Roorkee, Roorkee
A large number of earthquakes are felt all over the globe every year. The small ones are unnoticed while the large ones are felt over thousands of kilometers. The big quakes are not necessarily the most destructive. Earthquakes have damaged and destroyed man's work since time immemorial. Here, we have tried to explain the nature, distribution, causes and effects of this terrifying natural event. We look at the possibilities of minimizing its disastrous consequences.
In this context, the present booklet has been prepared under a project sponsored by Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, New Delhi to Department of Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee. The objective is to educate children in the region affected by Oct. 20, 1991 earthquake in Uttarkashi so as to create awareness in their minds about the earthquake problem.
This booklet has been prepared by Dr. Brijesh Chandra and Dr. (Mrs) Amita Sinvhal, members of the faculty of Department of Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee. Drawings included in the booklet are prepared by Mrs. Ila Gupta.
We hope that this effort made by Department of Earthquake Engineering, University of Rootkee through inspiration and funding by Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, will prove useful and helpful for children in their future life.
Prof. & Head Department of Earthquake Engg. University of Roorkee, Roorkee
In India epicentres of earthquakes are concentrated along the Himalayan mountains, from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh. This region extends southwards into the Nicobar islands. Gujarat and parts of Maharashtra are also very prone to earth-quakes. All other regions in India have smaller and fewer earthquakes. From seismicity viewpoint India has been divided into five seismic zones.
THE GREAT INDIAN EARTHQUAKES
Within the last two hundred years, India has experienced five great earthquakes, each with Richter magnitude exceeding 8. The regions where these occurred are as follows:
1819 Kutch, Gujarat
1905 Kangra, Himachal Pradesh
Some special effects of these earthquakes are described here.
The Assam Earthquake of 1897
This earthquake had its epicentre near Shillong. It is supposed be one of the largest earthquakes in the world, and has been assigned magnitude 8.7. The earth heaved in the most frightful manner, causing massive landslides and widespread floods. At some places land was displaced on the surface upto 12 meters. Along the Chedrang river several water falls and lakes developed. More than 1500 people lost their lives in this thinly populated area.
The Kangra Earthquake of 1905
This earthquake had twin epicenters - in the Kangra-Kulu and the Mussoorie-Dehradun valleys. It caused several large landslides, rock falls and large scale changes in...