Jostein Gaarder’s novel, “Sophie’s World”, introduces the word of philosophy in the form of a story to the eyes’ of a commoner, or someone who has not been exposed to the teachings of philosophy. In this novel, numerous philosophers that have made an impact on the world we presently live in today are briefly mentioned along with their thoughts’, philosophies’, and teachings’. Two very significant people that have made an impact on our society through their realizations are Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud both have strong views on society’s perception and morality. They have proved that society is driven on our perceptions, morality, and code of ethics.
Karl Marx was a German philosopher, born May 5, 1818. He was not a philosophical materialist nor did he advocate mechanical materialism like others who did around the seventeenth and eighteenth century. Marx was a historical materialist. Being so, Marx believed that we are described through history and it has made us who we are. All throughout history the central conflict of the human society has always been defined by “people who have” and “people who don’t have.” These are the underlying problems behind the majority of many conflicts had throughout the world, even today. This is because humans will always try to find a way to distinguish themselves from one another. It is in our nature to. Historical development was driven by the tension between opposites. We categorize things, or people, by their differences so it is put into simple terms and easier to understand. People like things that are as simple as “black” and “white,” but things in the world are almost never as simple as just one or the other. Most things have more complex backgrounds and would be considered “gray” because it does not just fit into one simple category. Because of this, if everything were as simple as “black” and “white” it would be more simple for someone to understand rather than something that is “gray.”
It is said that in general, Georg Wilhem Friedrich Hegel, a “legitimate child of Romanticism”, was the last philosopher to have contributed to the great philosophical systems era. Being that as it may, Karl Marx observed that philosophy should be headed into a new direction. Philosophers before him studied the world we live in in various ways. He felt that the point of their studies should now lead to change of society, for the better. It was time that something was done about the world we live in. Instead of a great speculative system, Marx called this an existential philosophy, or a philosophy of action.
Along with being a philosopher, Karl Marx was also a historian, a sociologist, and an economist. His thinking had a more practical and political way of thinking. In the novel, “Sophie’s World”, they bring us to the woods give us a brief example of communism with the interaction of two characters that exist outside of this novel. In the woods, Sophie find herself in the presence of...