Karyotype Essay

971 words - 4 pages

Down Syndrome is a disease in which there is an extra 21st chromosome in the body. This is caused during cell division. When the baby is in the mother womb, down syndrome can be detected. It can also be detected after the baby is born as well. This disease causes the baby to not develop properly. Researchers have been studying the causes of down syndrome and one of the highest risks, is having the baby when you are over 44 years old. Once you have reached your mid 40s, the possibility of having down syndrome increases to 1 in 35 pregnancies. For women that are 30 years or younger have a lesser chance of having a baby by 1 in a thousand pregnancies. Teenagers also have a higher possibility of having a child born with this disease , they have a percentage of 70-80 percent of having a baby with this disease.
Down syndrome. Children with down syndrome often have distinct physical characteristics because of this disease. Most children have a smaller structure than normal children and have short necks, flat noses, and low muscle tone. Children with this syndrome often have to go to speech therapists because of their slowly developing speech delay. Down Syndrome also effects a child's bodily function. Children with this syndrome also are prone to more diseases in the body. (Crosta, 2009).
Turner Syndrome is a condition that only occurs in females, where they are missing the X chromosome in their sex pair of chromosomes. This syndrome occurs in one in 2,500 births. Turner Syndrome’s main symptom is the height. Girls with turner syndrome are shorter than normal girls. This all happens when girls with turner syndrome don’t hit puberty. During puberty most girls start to produce sex hormones and start their periods. While most girls with turner syndrome don’t develop these hormones, so they have to get hormone treatment for them to develop this. Girls with turner syndrome are generally smart and learn english and reading skills at a regular level, but most girls have trouble with finger movements and memory skills. During This syndrome, other symptoms can occur such as re-occurring ear infections, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, heart murmur, and in most cases diabetes when they become older. Many women find out if their child has turner syndrome when an ultra sound takes place. other methods of detecting this syndrome is amniocentesis and prenatal testing.
Treatments for turner syndrome are growth hormone injections, and estrogen replacement therapy if the child doesn't go through puberty. Other major treatments that a child could go through is surgery for a heart murmur or High blood pressure medication. Most girls with turner syndrome live healthy lives, with regular estrogen medication. Most of the girls with turner syndrome also can’t form breasts. (Institute of Child Health, 2009).
Klinefelter’s Syndrome occurs in males who have an extra X chromosome. This syndrome is also known as the XXY syndrome. This syndrome is the most common syndrome...

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