Key Points About The Cell Cycle And Cancer

1713 words - 7 pages

For 5/6 of the history of life, all life was unicellular, and went through the cell cycle on a regular basis. As soon as enough growth had occurred, the cell would begin the "S" phase, eventually leading to mitosis and cell division.Between 600 and 400 million years ago, some eukaryotes became multicellular (animals, plants, fungi). Most of their cells now divide only a limited number of times before pausing in "G1" and specializing. These cells, all formed by mitosis, are genetic clones of the zygote and of all the stem cells that do not specialize. They still have all the genes necessary to move the cell into "S", but these genes are shut off.CausesCancers occur when genes for cell division that should be inactive become activated. This generally occurs when controller genes mutate and stop inhibiting the cell division genes. Typically, several mutations must occur in a single cell before the cell begins to divide out of control.Sometimes cells with one or more such mutations will look or behave differently from normal specialized cells, or will react differently to chemical tests. This may indicate a higher probability of a cell becoming cancerous in the future. Such cells are called precancerous. Many screening tests look for precancerous cells.Mutations are errors in the information coded in DNA. While errors can occur at any time if the DNA is damaged, they are much more likely during the "S" phase when the double helix of DNA is "unzipped" for copying. At such times, the cell's proofreading and correction system is less efficient because it cannot compare the damaged strand of DNA to its complementary strand. As a result, cells that divide frequently are much more likely to accumulate mutations and become cancerous. Thus, cancers are most common in tissues such as skin, blood stem cells, lymph nodes, the epithelium lining many organs and ducts, such as the lungs, intestines, breasts, uterus and cervix, and reproductive organs such as the testes, ovaries and prostate. They are very rare in cells that divide infrequently, such as muscles and nerves.The damage to DNA may occur simply by chance (i.e. a copying mistake), or it may be caused by a variety external factors. UV radiation (mainly from the sun) and ionizing radiation (from radioactive materials, X-rays) can break chemical bonds in DNA. So can certain toxic chemicals (called mutagens) that react with DNA, such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, some pesticides. (The more we look, the more we find that many substances can affect DNA to some degree, giving rise to the popular complaint that "everything causes cancer".) Byproducts of our own metabolism called free radicals can also interact with DNA. We all make these free radicals, though some foods, such as fatty foods, produce more. We all have chemical systems for "mopping them up", but some manage to slip by the defenses. Finally, viruses, which insert themselves into the DNA, can sometimes interrupt critical sequences of information...

Find Another Essay On Key Points about the Cell Cycle and Cancer

Cancer Cell Metastasis and How Cells Diffuse Into Diverse Parts of the Body

947 words - 4 pages activity of tumor cells and how they evade has therefore been to study how signals can direct the cells to different parts of the body. In normal circumstances, cells are able to bind to one another as well as form an extracellular matrix. Different types of adhesion can function as a critical role in metastasis and tissue invasion. It is thought that cell-to-cell adhesion, which is common in normal tissue, is not a characteristic of cancer cells.Tumor

The Truth about Gay Cancer Essay

1390 words - 6 pages There are four letters, that when put together can spell out a lifetime of agony, despair, prejudice and constant indignation; AIDS. Over the years the disease has been called GRID, Gay Cancer and finally came the name that is commonly accepted today, AIDS. Multiple theories are present as to the origin of this deadly virus, all of them are unique but no matter what the origin or name, AIDS is a terrible epidemic that needs to come to an end

Gene Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis, Cancer, and Sickle Cell Diseases

731 words - 3 pages In this report one will read my decision of how the 10 million dollars would be dispersed between Multiple Sclerosis, Cancer and Sickle cell disease. Briefly to explain my decision I choose these three because of the amount the people that get affected by these diseases are in staggering number. Cancer will have 5 million while Sickle-cell disease will have 2 million and finally Multiple Sclerosis will have 3 million. Beginning with Cancer

Elucidating the role of adhesion factors in circulating tumor cell clustering for breast cancer metastasis and venous thromboembolism

667 words - 3 pages biomarkers to treat metastatic breast cancer. B. Rationale: We seek to study the process of microtubule nucleation in various breast tumor cell lines of diverse metastatic potential and understand the role of abnormal microtubule nucleation in breast cancer metastasis. Preliminary studies from our lab have shown a dissimilar staining pattern by immunofluorescence in the major microtubule nucleating protein, γ-tubulin, as compared with normal

This is an essay on skin cancer. Mostly about the basics of the different types of skin cancer and then how to prevent from getting skin cancer.

776 words - 3 pages its initial appearance on the skin. Types of skin cancer include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer, and accounts for about 80 to 90 percent of all skin cancer cases in the United States (Types of skin cancer, 2010). According to the American Academy of Dermatology (2011), squamous cell carcinoma affects approximately 200,000 people in the United States every

Analise E.on UK, through studying industry dynamics and Porter's 5 Forces. Identify competitiveness of the key marketing features in the company, through studying product life cycle and innovation.

2297 words - 9 pages strengthen its weaknesses and benefit from the opportunities that may open up. To analyze and discuss the strategic issues, using industry dynamics and Porter’s five forces, and then using Product Life Cycle and Innovation to identify the key marketing features and reflect on them in relationship to a company, consider one of UK’s leading energy companies, E.ON UK.‘Porter argues that the nature and degree of competition in an

The Importance of Knowing About Cancer

1206 words - 5 pages themselves of great importance. Not only is it good to know about cancer to see the signs in your children but also it gives you an advantage over cancer. If you know treatments and the process of battling cancer, you can right away take action and have a better chance at beating it. The same as knowing where your children are every second knowing what could potential harm you or your child is also of importance. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cause and

Learn everything about Catcher in the Rye. The main points of the story and a well written essay by me.

1052 words - 4 pages begins his story misguided and without direction. After flunking out of the Pencey School, Holden decides to leave early. Before he leaves, though, he visits his teacher, Mr. Spencer. Mr. Spencer and Holden talk about his direction in life: "'Do you feel absolutely no concern for your future, boy?' 'Oh, I feel some concern for my future, all right. Sure. Sure, I do.' I thought about it for a minute. 'But not too much, I guess,'" (14). After leaving

Turning Points, the Wiemar Republic and Hitler.

1794 words - 7 pages , but also that of their neighbors. Whether it be a game in June or one in September, it is possible to pick out certain sections of a season and point out how those segments led to the outcome of a term. These parts are referred to as turning points and they play a big part in the duration of a baseball season. The same can be said when discussing nations. Whether it is 1800 or 1900, one is able to identify instances that drastically shaped the

This essay is about the revolution of cell phones both technologically and culturaly.

2131 words - 9 pages The Cell Phone RevolutionSince the beginning of the industrial revolution, the world has become a smaller place. The time used to travel to far distances has diminished; with the growth of new technologies, traveling and communicating have become simple daily tasks for many people. Through the growth of global communication, people have become closer to others across the globe, and business has gone world wide. One invention that came along with

Unlocking the Potential of Bcl-2 Antagonists: Key to Targeting Cancer

1122 words - 4 pages death by interfering with the apoptotic signal cascade. The presence of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins is a unique feature of tumorous cells, in which the cells never die [Brunelle and Letai]. The Bcl-2 protein family is categorized as either pro- or anti-apoptotic, and therefore is the key to maintaining the survival, or death, of a cell. Cancer cells often overexpress anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2, MCL-1, and BCL-XL

Similar Essays

The Cell And Neoplasm (Cancer) Essay

1998 words - 8 pages for a particular neoplasm, which will be cancer of the skin.Every cell performs many different tasks to survive and consists of many organelles which all have their own part to play in the function of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubes mainly used for protein synthesis and breaking down toxins, there are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: smooth and rough, it is known as rough because it has ribosomes attached to it. Ribosomes

Cell Phone Waves And Cancer Essay

2212 words - 9 pages and how people use them. Technology and use habits are constantly changing. According to the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association, there were more than 320 million cell phone subscriptions in the United States, as of June 2011. Cell phones emit energy known as radiofrequency (RF) waves, so people are concerned that these RF waves will increase the risk of brain cancer, or other tumors. This RF energy comes from the antenna of

Stem Cell Research And Breast Cancer

1481 words - 6 pages United States today. Swift action must be taken to eradicate breast cancer in America and throughout the world now. Many promising options exist in the fight against breast cancer, yet none has the potential to have a greater effect then stem cell research.      Today, the exact cause of breast cancer is still somewhat of a mystery. Therefore, prevention options are very limited. Women with a family history of breast

Differences In Cancer Stem Cell Properties In Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines Hct116 And Ht29

2870 words - 12 pages Summary: Background and objective. Tumor heterogeneity is shown to be related to clinical outcome in cancer patients. The concept of a small subset of cancer stem cells being responsible for tumor relapse and metastasis comes out as a promising strategy for targeted cancer therapy. However, cancer stem cells are not easy to identify and isolate. The aim of this study was to determine the putative colon cancer stem cell subsets in human colon