Key Terms Essay

1063 words - 4 pages

U.S. History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement ExamChapter 1 - A New World of Many Cultures, 1491-1607Key Names, Events, and TermsEncomienda System- A system instituted in the 1500's under which a Spanish soldier or colonist was granted a tract of land or a village together with its Indian inhabitants. Those Indians would have to farm or work in the mines. The fruits of their labor went to their Spanish masters and in return they would "take care" of the Indians.Asiento System- When the brutality and disease of the Europeans reduced Native American population; the Spanish brought slaves from West Africa under the Asiento System. It was a system that required the Spanish to pay a tax to their king on each slave they imported to the Americas.Adena-Hopewell-The Hopewell civilization (also called Adena in some regions) is a prehistoric culture of the American Middle West. The Adena and Hopewell evolved into the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys and elsewhere. Supported by hunting, fishing, and agriculture, many permanent settlements developed.Hohokam, Anasazi, and Pueblo-The Pueblo, Hohokam, and the Anasazi Indians settled in North America's southwest region. The Hohokam settled in what is now known as Arizona and the Anasazi and Pueblo Indians were cliff dwellers who settled in New Mexico and Colorado.Woodland mound builders- In the Eastern Woodland tribes, the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian groups are also referred to as mound-builder groups. The Adena and Hopewell cultures developed along the Ohio River, while Mississippians lived in the entire Mississippi valley.Mayas-Between A.D. 300 and 800, the Mayas built remarkable cities in the rain forests of the Yucatán Peninsula (present-day Guatemala, Belize, and southern Mexico). The Mayas developed a complex civilization and relied on complex systems of irrigation.Incas- Centuries later after the Mayas, the Inca Empire rose up and became the largest empire of Pre-Colombian America. The empire was located in modern day Peru. They had a highly developed society in which they carried extensive trade, and created calendars based on accurate scientific calculations. The Inca Empire was later conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1532.Aztecs-The Aztecs dominated vast parts of Mesoamerica, which is in Central America, from the 14th to 16th centuries. They highly organized societies, carried extensive trade and also had their own calendar based on scientific calculations. The Aztecs' capital of Tenochtitlan was equivalent in size and population to the largest cities of Europe. The Aztec Empire was later conquered by Hernan Cortez in 1521.Conquistadores- Some of the conquistadores were Vasco Nunez de Balboa which he journeyed cross the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean, the circumnavigation of the world by one of Ferdinand Magellan's ships, and of course the conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico by Hernan Cortez and of the Incas in Peru by Francisco Pizarro. This secured Spain a supremacy in the...

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