Kinetic Theory Essay

1754 words - 7 pages

STUDY TOPICS: AUTOCRACY / OLD SYSTEM IN RUSSIAYour focus should be on events from 1905 onwards, and wherever possible, aim to outline how these events and their consequences weakened autocracy.Account for the growing discontent by 1905 of the following groups:Peasants- a life of poverty, drunkenness and squalor85% of populationLong history of violent rebellion, most famous the Pugachev rebellion of 1973-75In 1900 most common peasant grievance was discontent with the emancipation edict made in 1861 which freed them from serfdom but only granted them half the land they felt was theirs by right.There wasn't enough land as population increased rapidly (50% between 1860-1897) so more competition for landMany in crushing debt to buy land off Govt. this land was often barely enough to survive n let alone pay off loansMost only produced enough food for themselves. some earned extra money by making clothes, furniture or articles to sell in town but many worked on nobles estate to earn extraDiet: rye bread and porridge, cabbage soup, fish was common and meat was rareTea, vodka and beer popular drinksAvg life expectancy <40Regular epidemics of diphtheria and typhusWhen crops were good plenty of food to go around but when crops were bad there was starvation and diseaseBackward farming techniques and rudimentary tools (wooden ploughs, few tools and animals) hence hard physical labourLived in self-governing village communities called mirsDISCONTENT ROSE: Tsar wanted to industrialize Russia and the majority of the money to do so came from the Russian people. The peasants had to pay heavy taxes on grain and taxes on everyday items increased. Policy worked well until poor harvests in 1900 and 1902- peasants squeezed to point where could barely survive and now they were starving. Outbreaks of violence and landlord houses were burned. Troops were sent to deal with peasants but demonstrations continued till the end of 1903Russo-Japanese war: Russia started war with Japan in 1904 as the Tsar thought winning a victory in a short war would stop people criticising his Govt. War made conditions worse than before. Many peasants were in the military and defeat after defeat to the Japanese was humiliatingProletariat4% of populationFactory workers, lowest classLife in the cities: workers (men and women) lived in cheap wooden lodging houses or tenement buildings and ate cheap black bread, cabbage soup and buckwheat porridge-drank vodkaIndustrial centres away from the cities: lived in barracks next to the factory. Dormitories containing 30 workers or tiny rooms containing several families. No privacy, illness, smells, arguments etc. could not be hiddenMany factories worked 24 hrs a day and the same bed occupied by two men in turnMajority of workers: young male peasants who had been forced off the landLarge number of women workers employed in textile factories in Moscow and St PetersburgEconomic problems: Tsar wanted to turn Russia into modern industrialised country and put...

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