King James Ii Essay

2149 words - 9 pages

Introduction ' "The monarchy I thank God, yet had had no dependency on Parliament nor on nothing but god."'(1) James's like his brother Charles, was determined to rule without the consent of Parliament and to reintroduce Roman Catholicism, which made King James Stuart II the cause of the Glorious Revolution. The Revolution of 1688 was also known as the Glorious Revolution because it was achieved without war. From-1685 -1688, James ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland. (2) James being the last Stuart and Catholic Monarch granted religious minorities the right to worship. James was treated as the would- be- tyrant because he attempted to subvert and extirpate the Protestant Religion and the laws and liberties of the kingdom he ruled. James II ignorance towards the Parliament caused an upheaval with the people.Life as Duke of York James Stuart the second was born on October 14, 1633. He was the middle child between Charles I and Elizabeth who was born in 1635. He also had another younger brother Henry who was born in 1660.(3) James learned Anglicanism of Archbishop Laud because the queen was not allowed to influence his religious education.(4) In the winter of 1647- 48 there was an attempt to send James to Holland so he could escape the beleaguered Britain and he did it successfully. James was being held captive because he was influenced by the Catholic religion. In 1649, Queen Henrietta Maria summoned James to Paris where he heard of his father's execution . After James's father Charles I died James's brother became king much to the dislike of James. James did not want to spend anymore time in the French Court so he asked permission to volunteer for the king of France's Army.(5) James wandered into foreign military service during the Commonwealth period (1649-1660). James fought many battles against the Spanish while he was a naval officer for Charles II. Within the Stuart Dynasty he served his brother as lord high admiral , administered colonies in Africa and New York and fought at sea in two battles against Holland in 1665 and 1672.(6) In 1659 James promised Anne Hyde marriage and their love was secretly consummated and then on September 3, 1660 they were married at the Worchester House. Then on April 30, 1662 James's eldest surviving had born and christened Mary.In 1669, James's made his crucial conversion as well as his wife Anne. James had publicly been a Roman Catholic. James's religion, his pro- French policies, and antiparlimentarian sentiments attracted the hostilities of the emerging Whig party. They created the Test Act of 1673 which deprived Catholics of government office was aimed largely at James.(7) In May 1661, the Duke of York (James II) took his seat in the reconstructed House of Lords which was more powerful in theory than the House of Commons. He went into the house with the Tories in agreement while the Whigs disapproved of him. Then he resigned from the Admiralty, the Whigs handled him between 1679, and 1681 with the Exclusion...

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