Ordóñez de Pablos, P. (2004). Knowledge flow transfers in multinational corporations. Knowledge properties and implications for management, 8(6), 105-116. doi: 10.1108/13673270410567666
In this article Ordóñez de Pablos aims to analyse “knowledge flows transfer within multinational corporations, with particular emphasis in replicating headquarters’ human resource management systems in subsidiaries to a certain extent” (p.105) Data is drawn from a variety of seminal and recent contributions to highlight the unique management systems in Japan and America, including the drawbacks when utilised in foreign countries. The given scenario laid out various characteristics of the two systems and their adaptions, this is highly useful as a starting point for my future research paper as the author expresses both the initial difficulties faced in setting up branches for staff including managers and the correct response in dealing with the issue. Then again with a single case study involving just two countries, it is unwise to judge and assume neighbouring countries will have similar systems. In conclusion, the act of gaining knowledge in a global scale escalates complexity of management systems, adding pressure to international managers..
Shen, J., & Lang, B. (2009). Cross-cultural training and its impact on expatriate performance in Australian MNEs. Human Resource Development International, 12(4), 371-386. doi: 10.1080/1367886090313576
Shen and Lang (2009) “examine cross-cultural training (CCT) policies and practices and their effects on expatriate performance in Australian multinational enterprises (MNEs)” (p.371). A case study and polls involving a number of organisations in distinct industries was carried out. Their primary objective was to find out whether MNEs prepare expatriates with enough CCT in order to thrive at an international level. (Shen & Lang, 2009) The article reveals some shocking results, just over a third of US companies provide CCT to their expatriate managers while their Japanese counterparts raking in at 57% (Tung, 1981 citied in Shen and Lang, 2009). This detail conflict with Ordóñez de Pablos (2004) finding, suggesting that American companies better thrive in foreign markets. However, the surveys examined were carried out in the last century making it unreliable as companies changed over time and the unwillingness of some Australian MNEs to participate means results could have varied considerably. In conclusion, although many Australian managers turned down potential CCT training, firms’ preference to hire staff within the same cultural background of the host country render this void. The article will be used as a supplementary information for my research rather than a stepping stone.
Schermerhorn Jr, J R., Davidson, P A, Poole, D A, Woods, P E, Simon, A L, McBarron, E L. (2014). Management (5th ed.). Australia: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Schermerhorn Jr, Davidson, Poole, Woods, Simon, McBarron, (2014) narrates the...