This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Krashen’s Hypotheses Of Second Language Acquisition

1678 words - 7 pages

Krashen’s Hypotheses of Second Language Acquisition

For decades, foreign language teachers wandered in a scientific abyss. Until 1983, there had been little real research dealing with the ways in which someone acquires a second language. Teachers mostly used the audiolingual classroom model that had been in place for the past twenty years (or, even worse, the literally ancient grammatical translation model that had been used by civilizations millennia old). Clearly, language teaching methodology was in a poor situation. In 1983, however, Krashen published the results of an unprecedented body of research and paved the way for a revolution in our field. His five-point hypothesis focused on the difference between the acquisition of and the learning of a second language. Krashen has his detractors, of course, not the least of whom are American school districts, which have been reluctant to implement his teachings. Most experts agree, however, that his ideas are the most meritorious of the theories in circulation now, and schools that refuse to incorporate them are doing their students a disservice.

The first of Krashen’s hypotheses is the learning-acquisition hypothesis, which differentiates the two titular terms. According to Krashen, “acquisition” refers to the implicit knowledge we have of a language, whereas “learning” refers to explicit knowledge about a language. Implicit knowledge refers to command of a language as if it were one’s native language; explicit knowledge is what we unfortunately gain in most foreign language classes. One good example of this in Spanish is the phrase “me llamo,” which literally means “I call myself” but is usually translated by Spanish teachers as “my name is.” While this is the most comprehensible translation for native English speakers, the syntax of the two expressions is too different for a beginner to use the Spanish properly. Possibly the most common error that new Spanish students commit is saying, “me llamo es…” (“es” meaning “is” in English). They assume that to say “my name is…” the Spanish word for “is” must be used and therefore commit this error. A native speaker, however, has only ever learned that to state his name, he must say “me llamo…” There is no error during transference between the two grammatical systems because an interlocutor’s implicit, acquired knowledge need never be transferred. The explicit, learned knowledge of a Spanish student has not ascended to the natural ability level of a native speaker; he must still make a conscious effort to communicate in his second language. This postulate is Krashen’s central idea and directly influences each of the four remaining hypotheses.

The second hypothesis is called the natural order hypothesis. This theory expresses that, during first- or second-language acquisition (though not necessarily second-language learning), the beginner will master grammatical structures in a specific,...

Find Another Essay On Krashen’s Hypotheses of Second Language Acquisition

Krashen’s Monitor Model and Its Implications in Second Language Teaching

2125 words - 9 pages acquisition of grammatical structure in second language learners. They also believe that this model is the “logical theoretical development” of these studies (p. 39). In the Monitor Model, Krashen describes five hypotheses that examines how second language learners acquire the target language. These hypotheses are: 1. Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis. 2. The Monitor Hypothesis. 3. The Natural Order Hypothesis 4. The Input Hypothesis. 5. The Affective

Second Language Acquisition in Childhood Essay

1254 words - 5 pages Children acquire their native language, which fall within a wide range of languages, at a very early stage of development. During development, a child begins to show signs of verbal communication, usually starting out as cooing, babbling, recognizable words, and later two or more word sentences. This occurrence is also seen in the development of second languages. Second language acquisition is the study of how second languages are typically

First and Second Language Acquisition

1339 words - 5 pages First and Second Language Acquisition In our everyday lives, the origin of our ability to communicate is usually not often taken into consideration. One doesn't think about how every person has, or rather had at one time, an innate ability to learn a language to total fluency without a conscious effort – a feat that is seen by the scientific community "as one of the many utterly unexplainable mysteries that beset us in our daily lives" (3

SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION FOR LEARNERS

1196 words - 5 pages Teaching and acquiring second foreign languages are necessary to have various knowledge that relate to different ways or methodologies. As a known initially the people have (L1.) mother tongue after the birth. It is learned from the way of audition and this acquisition starts with maternity and infanthood. The mother tongue learners learn the main rules and patterns which is L1. Therefore, second language acquisition becomes impalpable. Most of

The Impact of Culture on Second Language Acquisition

959 words - 4 pages concerning the language learning difficulties from different perspectives. One of the theories to explain second language acquisition issues from the sociocultural/sociolinguistic point of view is Brown’s (1980) Optimal distance Model, which is in parallel with Schumann’s (1986) Acculturation Model. Brown (1980) and Schumann (1986) state that both second language learning difficulties and the level of mastery in that language can be determined

The Impact of Age in Relation to Second Language Acquisition

2029 words - 9 pages Illinois provided in their case study, “Critical Period Effects in Second Language Learning: The Influence of Maturational State on the Acquisition of English as a Second Language” that, “some investigators have suggested that a critical period theory must predict that children are better than adults at learning second languages” (63). In order to prove or disprove the idea that children are able to better acquire second languages at a higher rate

Comparing first and second language acquisition

1866 words - 7 pages Essay«Comparing first and second language acquisition»«Comparing first and second language acquisition»Language acquisition is the subdiscipline of applied linguistics and the area of researches of psycholinguistic.Language acquisition is "picking up' a language, not learning it consciously but by being exposed to it in natural situations (e.g. as a child learns its first language). Often contrasted with language learning

Comparing first and second language acquisition

1866 words - 7 pages Essay«Comparing first and second language acquisition»«Comparing first and second language acquisition»Language acquisition is the subdiscipline of applied linguistics and the area of researches of psycholinguistic.Language acquisition is "picking up' a language, not learning it consciously but by being exposed to it in natural situations (e.g. as a child learns its first language). Often contrasted with language learning

Addressing Challenges on Acquisition of Reading Comprehension to Second Language English Speakers

1818 words - 8 pages Addressing challenges on acquisition of reading comprehension to second language English speakers. Where does the gap lie? Background to the study In our country, South Africa, we know that we are faced with so many socio-economic issues Some of these issues are poverty, high crime, HIV/AIDS epidemic, child-headed families, abuse in the family, illiterate parents and alcoholic parents just to name a few. These social make it even harder for us

How do teachers apply the second language acquisition approaches?

938 words - 4 pages Now days it is essential to acquire a second language which let people interact with other cultures, in a global world, as it is known, there are different approaches related to a second language acquisition, but how are they practiced in a real classroom? To get a general idea which can potentially clarify this question, two classes were exanimated to compare and contrast theory and practice. Here the descriptions and results: First of all

Theories of Language Acquisition

966 words - 4 pages Theories of Language Acquisition The theories of language acquisition are essentially centred around the nature nurture argument. The theory that children have an innate capacity for language was created by Noam Chomsky (1928- ) an American linguistic. This nativist approach states that learning language is part of the genetic makeup of human species and is nearly independent of any particular experience which

Similar Essays

Second Language Acquisition Essay

2014 words - 8 pages Introduction Through the years, language teachers, psychologists and others have had varying ideas of how languages are learned. Second language acquisition has multiple models, including cognitive based models, sociocultural models, and models regarding input and interaction. In this paper, my goal is to take one prominent model of SLA, the interactionist model, and determine how this model actually plays out in the classroom. I seek to answer

Second Language Acquisition Essay

3332 words - 13 pages another likely explanation for this second language incompetence. This theory is characterized of five hypotheses. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis implies that there are two independent systems of second language performance; acquisition is the result of a subconscious process similar to children’s mother language acquisition and requires life-like second language interaction, which concentrates on communication rather than accuracy. On the other

Second Language Acquisition Essay

2391 words - 10 pages SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENTFaced with the reality that few students attain the native-like competence the following question arises what are the root causes of this problem?. Many researchers agree in that L2 learners are bad at L2 learning, in spite of the fact that they make an effort to improve their speech, by imitation, they still have a foreign accent, or they make mistakes when they apply the rules of grammar in their writings

Second Language Acquisition Essay

3146 words - 13 pages makes the point that CF can demotivate students “even students who believe that correction is a necessary part of learning do not enjoy the sight of red ink all over their writing” (Truscott, 1996:p. 354). Students when they see their errors might avoid attempting complex structures and instead only write in simpler sentences which are grammatically correct in order to avoid mistakes. Truscott (1996) points out how Second language acquisition (SLA