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Krashen’s Monitor Model And Its Implications In Second Language Teaching

2125 words - 9 pages

Introduction
Over the past few decades, different theories emerged to explain how these children acquire their language such as behaviorism, nativism, and interactionism. The research on first language acquisition did not lead only to the previous theory, but it also led to the emergence of second language acquisition theories. One of these second language theories is the Monitor Model which was influenced by the nativist perspective on language acquisition. The Monitor Model also led to the emergence of different implications in second language teaching. Therefore, this research paper aims to answer the following two questions:
• How does the nativist perspective of first language ...view middle of the document...

The research will discuss the basic information about these hypotheses and a brief implication of each one of them. Finally, it will examine the classroom implications of the Monitor model through the natural approach.
The Nativist Perspective
There are different theoretical perspectives of how children acquire their first language. One of these perspectives is the Nativism which is proposed by Chomsky.
Chomsky believes that every human has innate ability that help him in acquiring language. This innate ability is genetically coded in the brain. Thus, he suggests that the brain contains certain mechanisms called language universals that provide various rules that are used in language production and comprehension (Palmer, 2000, pp. 39-40).
Furthermore, Chomsky believes that these mechanisms are in stored in the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). Brown (1994) suggests that LAD consists of four linguistic properties which are innate. The first Property is the ability to differentiate between speech sound and other different sounds in the environment. Another property is the ability to differentiate between what structure can be used in the language and what cannot be used. The last two properties are the ability to ability to categorize language into different classes and the ability construct language system from the input learners are exposed to (p. 25).
However, LAD must be activated first by exposure to the target language. After that, learners can generate their own language system by using their innate ability. This perspective influences many linguists that developed theories of second language acquisition based on Chomsky’s ideas. One of these linguists is Stephen Krashen that developed the Monitor Model theory of second language learning.
The Monitor Model
One second language theory that was influenced by the work of Chomsky is the Monitor Model. Krashen proposed this theory in the 1970s, when the dissatisfaction of behaviorism aspects in language teaching was arising (Spada & Lightbown, 2011, p. 36).
Krashen believes that there is not major difference between how learners acquire their first and second language. He thinks that all learners have an innate ability that governs the language acquisition process. Therefore, both first and second language learners need to activate the LAD by being exposed to input in the target language (Shoebottom, 2009). According to Mitchell and Myles (2004), the development of this Model was a result of the finding of the morpheme studies that investigate the acquisition of grammatical structure in second language learners. They also believe that this model is the “logical theoretical development” of these studies (p. 39). In the Monitor Model, Krashen describes five hypotheses that examines how second language learners acquire the target language. These hypotheses are:
1. Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis.
2. The Monitor Hypothesis.
3. The Natural Order Hypothesis
4. The Input Hypothesis.
5. The...

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