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Kuwait Water Mangment Essay

2438 words - 10 pages

1. Introductions:
Kuwait with a total area of 17,820 square kilometers (km2) lies by Persian Gulf. in the north and north-west It is bordered by Iraq, by Saudi Arabia in the south and southwest by and by the Persian Gulf in the east. The land is usually flat with slightly undulating desert plains sloping gently towards the north-east; Kuwait is reaching an altitude of about 300 meters (m) above sea level. Most of the zone in Kuwait is desert with a few oases (Water profile of Kuwait, 2007). The picture below showed the location of AL Kuwait.

Figure 1: Map of Al Kuwait. (Source: FAO-Forestry)

2. Climate and Water Resources :
2.1 Climate:
Kuwait characterized by a desert climate which is dry, long and hot summer. The temperature in this region is reaching more than 45°C with frequent sandstorms in summer. However in winter, the temperatures are decreasing to reach 4°C. The rainy season is started from October to May. The annual rainfall is less than 100 (mm) in Area with100 km2, but in remaining part it differs between 100 and 300 mm. The average of long term annual rainfall for Kuwait was about 176 mm. The rainfall recently decreased to 106 and 134 mm/year (Water profile of Kuwait, 2007).
2.2 Water Resources :
Based on historical development People in Kuwait used to drink water from different sources each one was different based on period of time they live in. For example the way of drinking was different in period before oil discovery and period after oil discovery. A book was published by Kuwaiti studies and researches central showed that there were two important historical periods in Kuwait control the way of drinking and lighting (2005). This shows that the development that happened in Kuwait changed the way of how people behave and utilized water from its sources. Drinking and utilized water started by using primary and samples ways and developed to end up with much complex systems.
2.2.1 Period before oil discovery:
People in this time faced lots of problems to collect the fresh water due to deserts climates and very hot summer. So they used sample ways as the following:
2.2.1.1 Collecting the storm water :
Normally in Kuwait the rainfall intensity ranged from 3 to 30 mm in 1964 and 4 to 242 mm in 19 76. The average of the annual rain is 104 mm. this is so limited and people cannot depend on the storm water as main sources (Misak et al, 1998).
However Kuwait characterized by low raining period, People need to save each droplet of water. So in this period they started to build their houses in way to help them collect the rain droplets. They built their roofs with special slop that helped to drop the water in a pool at the center of the house. This pool was made with depth reach to 4 meters and its radius at the bottom is 4 meters but it gradually decreased as it rises. Instated of using the pool some people were using different types of containers. On the other hand people used to dig holes and build dames to utilize the water...

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