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La Capocchia Essay

3694 words - 15 pages

IL MALE DI VIVERE
Il periodo compreso tra l'ultimo decennio dell'800 e gli anni precedenti la prima guerra mondiale, è caratterizzato da una violenta reazione al Positivismo: questo aveva celebrato la fede nella scienza, nel progresso sociale, nella pacifica collaborazione fra i popoli, ma la realtà, fatta di guerre, imperialismi, lotte di classe, era ben diversa da quanto si era sperato. Tale situazione determina nuovi atteggiamenti spirituali: subentra la disillusione, l'angoscia, la sensazione del vuoto e del nulla; in arte si reagisce con la rottura dei moduli naturalistici.Distrutti i vecchi schemi della cultura positivistica, rinnegati i miti consolatori dell'800, immerso in un mondo sfiduciato nelle prospettive della scienza e della vita politica e sociale, posto di fronte all'ascesa vertiginosa della borghesia capitalistica che impone un modello di società tutto basato sulla logica del capitale e del profitto come unici valori, l'uomo di cultura (europeo) del primo '900 vive una profonda crisi d'identità, avverte chiaramente la fine di un'epoca e l'avvento di una nuova e prende coscienza della perdita del suo tradizionale ruolo sociale che era quello del "praeceptor", del "creatore di valori" e, in un certo senso, di "vate". Egli generalmente, al contrario di quanto avveniva nel secolo precedente, proviene dai ceti medi borghesi, una classe sociale che vede compiere il suo declassamento schiacciata com'è tra la forza indiscussa della grande borghesia finanziario-industriale e le emergenti forze del proletariato. Emarginata da questi due colossali protagonisti, la piccola e media borghesia, e con essa l'intellettuale, si sente frustrata, indebolita, disorientata ed, incapace di farsi classe egemone come aspira, si vede ridotta a classe subalterna e strumentale. Nasce da ciò una situazione di disagio, di noia esistenziale, di malcontento, di provocazione.Lo scrittore avverte con angoscia che sta per compiersi la frattura definitiva, iniziata nell'Ottocento, tra io e mondo, tra artista e realtà e si sente "spersonalizzato", "disumanizzato", "disintelligenziato". Oramai "i tempi sono cambiati", come dice Palazzeschi, e gli uomini "non domandano più nulla ai poeti", a quei poeti che altro non sono che "articoli di non prima necessità", come afferma Gozzano.La risposta degli uomini di cultura alla profonda crisi esistenziale, morale e culturale che investe la coscienza dell'uomo agli albori del Novecento e alla crisi che travolge l'intellettuale tradizionale approda a soluzioni diverse e spesso contraddittorie.Alcuni scrittori si impegnano in una inquieta e tormentosa analisi della malattia dell'uomo moderno nella civiltà industriale e borghese che essi condannano in maniera corrosiva e impietosa. Nelle loro opere questi scrittori parlano di malattia, di eroe in tensione, di inettitudine, di universo labirintico; e ancora di uomo senza qualità, di uomo spersonato nel...

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