La Distribuzione Cinematografica Essay

2117 words - 8 pages

La distribuzione cinematograficaLa distribuzione cinematografica si sviluppa parallelamente alla nascita del cinema, ovvero fin da quando le prime vedute dei fratelli Lumière venivano proiettate all'interno di sale appositamente affittati. Si parla quindi degli albori, addirittura del pre-cinema, di quelle immagini sbiadite, a scatti, che venivano mostrate su un muro davanti ad un pubblico.Tra gli anni dieci e gli anni venti del Novecento, paesi in Europa, cercarono di dare un'identità all'industria cinematografica, che ben presto subì un'evoluzione. Le aziende cominciarono a produrre e distribuire film gestendo il tutto con budget limitati, in Germania, ci si concentrò soprattutto su una politica che coinvolgesse il pubblico in progetti narrativi e spettacolari, focalizzandosi sulla creazione di una nuova esperienza di cultura di massa. Invece in Francia si puntò molto sull'affermazione del cinema a livello culturale, con cineforum e associazioni, alla ricerca della scoperta del cinema d'autore. L'Italia si fondò sulla ricerca di un'identità nazionale attraverso i film storici. Dall'altra parte dell'Oceano, in America, le piccole compagnie di distribuzione e produzione cominciarono a fondersi in aziende più grandi a concentrazione verticale, capaci, cioè, di curare la produzione, la distribuzione e la proiezione nelle sale. Siamo di fronte alla nascita delle prime grandi case di produzione e distribuzione, le Majors: la RKO, la Warner Bros, la Paramount, la MGM e la 20th Century Fox rimarranno solide per decenni; a queste si uniranno le cosiddette Minors, o Little Three, ovvero la United Artists, la Universal e la Columbia. Nel corso degli anni le grandi industrie cinematografiche statunitensi hanno continuato a produrre e distribuire pellicole dominando, in maniera indiscussa, l'intera industria cinematografica a livello mondiale.Al giorno d'oggi, con l'evoluzione delle tecnologie e del marketing, la distribuzione cinematografica rappresenta più che mai un fattore indispensabile e fondamentale senza il quale la 7° arte non potrebbe sopravvivere. Il meccanismo di distribuzione si articola in diverse fasi. Dobbiamo innanzitutto dire chi è il distributore. Il distributore è il soggetto responsabile della commercializzazione del film in uno o più territori o canali, la cui attività si articola in due fasi: la prima è quella riguardante la gestione dei supporti, ovvero la riproduzione delle pellicole stesse e del loro inserimento sul mercato, la seconda è quella che ne riguarda la gestione commerciale, ovvero gli accordi di distribuzione con l'esercente per la programmazione nelle sale. Quando sono interessati grandi studios, questo può avvenire ancor prima che il film sia completato, altrimenti, più spesso, attraverso pre-proiezioni, o altre tecniche di marketing. In questo modo si cerca di garantire all'esercente e al...

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