Language Essay

1231 words - 5 pages

Menurut Kamaruddin Hj Hussin dan Siti Hajar Hj Abdul Aziz (1997:1), bahasa adalah alat komunikasi untuk manusia berhubung, melahirkan perasaan, kehendak, fikiran dan sebagainya. Bahasa dapat menghubungkan seseorang dengan yang lain sama ada dari segi jarak tempat atau jarak masa. Melalui jarak tempat, seseorang itu boleh berhubung dengan seseorang yang lain secara lisan sama ada berhadapan atau melalui telefon atau boleh juga melalui tulisan. Berhubung dengan jarak masa pula melibatkan seseorang itu merakamkan sesuatu untuk generasi akan datang. Ia boleh dilakukan melalui pita rakaman, komputer atau video. Hal ini dapat menyatakan fikiran kehendak pendapat atau idea kepada generasi yang terkemudian.Dalam pertuturan manusia terdapat bentuk-bentuk bahasa yang terdiri daripada kumpulan bunyi yang berupa perkataan yang bermakna, rangkai kata dan ayat-ayat. Tiap-tiap bentuk mempunyai sistem atau peraturan-peraturannya yang tersendiri dalam menghasilkan sesuatu bunyi. Ia mempunyai hukum-hukum yang membentuk perkataan, rangkai kata dan ayat-ayat.Menurut Kamaruddin Hj Hussin dan Siti Hajar Hj Abdul Aziz (1997:2), setengah-setengah orang mendefinisikan bahasa dari sudut fungsi bahasa itu sendiri. Bagi mereka bahasa merupakan alat perhubungan atau komunikasi. Mengikut Bloch and Trager (1942) dalam bukunya Outline to Linguistic Analysis '…a language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by mean of which a social group cooperates'. Maksudnya bahasa ialah satu sistem lambang pertuturan yang arbitrari, digunakan oleh ahli sesebuah masyarakat sebagai alat untuk berhubung dan bekerjasama.Edward Safir dalam bukunya An Introduction to the study of speech menyebutkan bahawa bahasa ialah satu sistem lambang-lambang pertuturan yang digunakan oleh manusia secara arbitrari untuk menyampaikan fikiran dan perasaan.Menurut Kamarudin Hj Hussin (1988:4), bahasa telah didefinisikan oleh Wilhelm Von Humbolt, seorang sarjana bangsa Jerman sebagai satu sintesis daripada bunyi yang dibentuk oleh lautform bentuk luaran dan fikiran yang dibentuk oleh idenform bentuk dalaman. Daripada sintesis inilah beragam-ragam ujaran yang tidak terbatas jumlahnya dapat diterbitkan.Ferdinand de Saussure, seorang sarjana linguistic Swiss awal abad ke 20 menyatakan bahawa bahasa adalah satu sistem isyarat yang mempunyai bahagian terpenting berupa gabungan daripada erti dengan bayangan bunyi dan kedua-duanya (erti dan bayangan bunyi) adalah bersifat psikologi. Menurut beliau, erti dan bunyi itu tidaklah terpisah tetapi gabungan dalam satu rantaian ucapan menurut hukum-hukum tatabahasa.Seorang sarjana linguistik bangsa Amerika abad ke 20, Charles F.Hockett melihat bahasa dari sudut psikologi behaviurisme. Kata beliau, bahasa adalah satu sistem tabiat-tabiat yang sangat rumit. Sementara itu seorang lagi sarjana linguistic Amerika John B. Carol melihat bahasa dari sudut linguistik. Menurut beliau, bahasa adalah satu sistem berstruktur daripada bunyi-bunyi vokal dan urutan bunyi-bunyi yang...

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