III. Purpose of LHC
The LHC is an important machine that allows scientists to delve further back in time and into the undiscovered parts of matter. The results from the experiments executed in the LHC are hard to predict since the experimental ideas are at the limits of our understanding. The LHC projects aims to uncover new facts about the origins of our universe and educate us regarding the matter that surrounds us, and that exists in the universe beyond.
CERN (2009) pointed out that the Standard Model of particles and forces can summarize our current knowledge regarding particle physics. This model has been established through different experiments and has been proven to be successful ...view middle of the document...
These cosmological observations have also shown that all the matter that are visible accounts only for 4% of the universe. Physicists search for particles or occurrences that are responsible for existence of dark energy (73%) and dark matter (23%). Dark matter is formed from neutral supersymmetric particles which are still undiscovered. The existence of dark matter was first hinted at in 1933, when it was found out that there is more material in the universe, apparenty hidden in “plain sight.” Its gravitational effect has also been theorized to aid in the increased spinning of galaxies. Dark energy, homogeneously distributed, is presumed to make up approximately 70% of the universe and is related to the vacuum in the space. Due to this even distribution, its gravitational effects in the universe are global. It also tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe caused by repulsive forces. Dark energy’s existence has been confirmed due to the experiments using the Hubble law. The mystery of antimatter is also an unanswered question. Theoretically, matter and antimatter is thought to have been produced in equal amounts during the Big Bang. However, the only observable part of the universe is the matter. The LHC can help provide answers as to hose this happened. Antimatter is bound by limits such as the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray spectrum and inhomogeneties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The cosmic gamma rays have been produced from the annihilations during the big band. The amount of the annihilation cross sections, cosmic redshifts, and the distance can lead to the prediction of the existence of gamma rays. For the inhomegeneities in the CMB, the antimatter leads to the heating up of the boundaries and is shown as such in the CMB through density fluctuations. In addition to the existing studies regarding proton-proton collisions, the LHC also covers heavy ion collisions which provide a window to the state of matter that is believed to have been existence in the early universe – the quark-gluon plasma. This plasma is formed through heavy ion collisions at high energies which further forms a bolide of hot, dense matter (CERN, 2009; US/LHC, 2012).
IV. LHC detectors
In tracking and charactering the collision of different particles, detectors are used for monitoring and observing more information from the process. The charge and the momentum can be detected using the analysis of the collision from the detectors. The principle of particle detectors is very simple although the practice can be more complex. There are seven constructed detectors complementing the LHC, and two of them are particle detectors for general-purpose use: the ATLAS experiment and the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) (CERN, 2009).
ATLAS is a large particle detector used for the general purpose of detecting particles. The main features of ATLAS include a large circular magnet system to search for the supersymmetry (SUSY) and the Higgs boson. The size of ATLAS...