At Q 1 A reaction is at equilibrium when the ratio of the product and the reactant side are equal. This could further be seen by the reaction quotient depicted by Qc is equal to the equilibrium constant, Kc, of the given chemical reaction. Given that aA + bB ↔ cC +dD, the small letters being the mole coefficients and the big letters being the molecules of the chemical equation, K_eq=([〖C]〗^c [〖D]〗^d)/([〖A]〗^a [〖B]〗^b ) is the formula for finding the Kc of any given reversible equation. The symbol used in writing an equation that involves equilibrium is a double-headed arrow to indicate that indeed, the reaction could go forward and backward.
At Q 2 Le Chatelier’s Principle states that a solution at equilibrium will shift accordingly so that any stress applied to the solution will lessen so that the solution will be at equilibrium once again. Le Chatelier’s Principle is observed in part I wherein the different concentrations affect the equilibrium of the CoCl2 in water or ethanol. From the results above, the 12 M HCl and H2O caused enough stress on the solution to shift the equilibrium. The lower concentrations however, was not able to cause a significant stress in the solution which resulted to the solution having no change in color.
Part II is also similar with part I in terms that it partially deals with the concentration as the main factor in shifting the equilibrium. The difference is that whatever was added to stress the reaction would also be neutralized in the end since part II deals with the same molarity if HCl and NaOH. Another difference is that two of the three pocedures involved the use of Ba(NO3)2. Whenever Ba(NO3)2 was added, the solution would become cloudy or murky because of the precipitate that formed. Ba(NO3)2 could probably be a catalyst that could either speed up or slow down the rate of reaching equilibrium. However given the kind of data collected, it could not really be determined if so. A reason why Ba(NO3)2 could be a catalyst is because that despite the formation of precipitate, the equilibrium of the solution did not shift.
Le Chatelier’s Principle is also observed in terms of changes in temperature such that if an endothermic solution for example, is exposed to high temperatures, this would cause the solution’s equilibrium to shift to the right so that the stressed caused by the high temperature will be counteracted. The changes brought upon the changes of heat is also reversible because of this principle. This could be seen from the results based on part III of the experiment.
At Q 3 The type of reaction involved in part I is single-displacement reaction wherein the Cl- would displace the H2O in the equation Co(H2O)62+ + 4Cl- ↔ CoCl42- +6H2O and the H2O would displace the Cl- in the reverse reaction. At Q 4 A change of color is observed when either water, which made the solution magenta, or concentrated HCl, which made the solution purple, was added because of the stress it caused the...