Leader-Member Exchange Theory, also called LMX or Vertical Dyad Linkage Theory, describes how leaders in groups maintain their position through a series of tacit exchange agreements with their members. High-quality leader–member relationships or exchanges are characterized by high levels of trust, interaction, support, and formal and informal rewards. Research on supervisor–subordinate relationships has shown convincingly that leaders do not behave consistently toward all subordinates .Instead, leaders form different quality relationships with their subordinates .Essentially, high-quality leader–member relationships(or exchanges; LMX) are characterized by a high degree of mutual trust, respect, and obligation, whereas low-quality LMX is characterized by low levels of the same constructs. LMX theory draws from social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) in order to explain the development of dyadic relationships and the linkages between leadership processes and outcomes.
LMX theory has been identified also as one of the more interesting and useful approaches for studying hypothesized linkages between leadership processes and outcomes
The LMX Theory attempts to understand the quality of each dyadic relationship and its effects on organizational outcomes over time.
Measures of conscientiousness, sportsmanship, compliance, job dedication, civic virtue, and change-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (i.e., identifying and implementing organizational changes in methods, policies, and procedures) were also categorized as organizational targeted behaviors. They relied on definitions of the dimensions of citizenship behaviors provided by Podsakoff, MacKenzie and Hui (1993) and Podsakoff et al. (2000) and on research demonstrating that altruism and courtesy load together on a second-order helping dimension (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Paine, 1999; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994) to aid us in this categorization. Correlations representing a combination of individual- and organizational-targeted behaviors or including general contextual performance were not used for this moderator analysis. They also did not classify safety citizenship behaviors, communal social capital investment behavior (i.e., contributions to the communal social capital of an organization, including information sharing, trustworthy behavior, and helping behavior), and voice. In all, they included 27 independent correlations between LMX and individual-targeted citizenship behavior (N _ 5,296) and 21 correlations between LMX and organizational-targeted citizenship behavior (N _ 4,119).
Research based on both published and unpublished reports that examined the relationship between LMX and citizenship behaviors. It means that maybe some unpublished reports does not be reliable for two reasons:
First because unpublished reports never have been considered .Second they may have some problems that never published. Unpublished reports are reports that never...