Leaders focus on motivation, and inspiration (Kotter, 1990). Leaders aim to create passion to follow their vision, to reach long term goals, take risks to accomplish common goals, and challenges the current status quo (Bennis and Nanus, 1997) . The leader keeps an open eye on his followers benefits, so people follow the leader voluntarily, and the leader directs the follower by using a transformational style (Bass, 1990).
Leaders should have some critical qualities such as integrity; vision; toughness; decisive; trust; commitment; selflessness, creativity; risk taking; toughness; communication ability, and visibility (Capowski, 1994). Moreover, leaders should have charisma; a sense of mission; ability to influence people in a positive environment; and ability to solve problems (House, 1977).
In addition, research shows that effective leader depends upon common behaviors and characteristics like: confidence; service mentality; good coaching skills; reliability; expertise; responsibility; good listening skills; being visionary; realistic; good sense of priorities; honesty; willingness to share; strong self-esteem; technical or contextual, and recognition (Bennis and Nanus, 1997).
Management vs. Leadership
Leadership and management overlap, but they are not the same (Kotterman, 2006). Both leadership and management involve influence, working with people, and working to achieve common goals (The Guardian, 2013). However, the fields of leadership and management considered very different (Kotterman, 2006).
In 1977, Abraham Zaleznik wrote the first scholarly and landmark article about the difference between leaders and managers (Zaleznik, 1977). Zaleznik mentioned that the organization needs both effective managers and effective leaders in order to reach its goals, but he argues that managers and leaders have different contributions (Zaleznik, 1977). Whereas leaders promoter change, new approaches, and work to understand people’s beliefs to gain their commitment, managers promoter stability, exercise authority, and work to get things accomplished. Therefore, management and leadership need different types of people (Zaleznik, 1977) (Table 2).
Bennis and Nannus (1985) briefly describe the differences between the leaders and managers in one sentence: "Leaders do the right things; managers do things right." (p. 33). Bernard Bass (1990) in his book "Bass...